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Proceedings of

7th International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control and Networking ACCN 2017

Date
24-Sep-2017
Location
Bangkok , Thailand
Authors
43
ISBN
978-1-63248-134-4

21 Articles Published

1. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION FAIRNESS PROPORTION ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION-AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: The fields of location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies are yielding commendable output and justify the research effort input in them [1-53]. With present research status, the merging of these fields still has a lot to undergo. Correct protocol design approaches is a crucial factor for successful merging of these fields. However, it is currently agreed that such approaches are heuristic in nature and hence unsuitable for implementation [91]. Improvements in middleware services and ubicomp network architecture is also needed [92, 93]. A well-shaped objective in this direction of ubicomp advancement is achievement of “realism” in design and evaluation of wireless routing protocols [94]. Such investigations may generate components better adapted for studies of predictability in ubicomp. These may be required since “realism” will dripple into every feature related to ubicomp, one of which was studied previously [22] to assess the trend of Energy Consumpti

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, ECFP- Energy Consumption Fairness Proportion, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value

Pages: 1 - 9 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-01

2. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR MAXIMUM FAIRNESS PROPORTION ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION-AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: Momentous research is on the way for the fields of location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies [1-55]. Attempts for their merging are presently not yielding so commendable output yet. One factor over which such merging depends on is correct protocol design approaches, which is presently considered as heuristic and insufficiently adapted for implementation [93]. Progresses in middleware services and ubicomp network architecture are also awaited [94, 95]. A perspicaciously defined objective along such vision for ubicomp advancement is to attain “realism” in design and evaluation of wireless routing protocols [96]. Such studies may generate technical constituents for further studies of predictability in ubicomp. Such constituents are of utmost importance since “realism” will propagate into every aspect of ubicomp. One such particular aspect was studied previously [24] to assess the trend of Maximum Fairness Proportion (Max_FP) observable for CBRs under dif

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, Max_FP- Maximum Fairness Proportion, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANETMobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value.

Pages: 10 - 15 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-02

3. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR MAXIMUM CBR DISTANCE ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION-AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: Many sub-fields concerned with ubicomp, like location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies, are being put to serious research [1-58]. However, their merging still is far from being fruitfully reached. Specifically, the enforcement of location-aware transmission strategies is hoped to enhance energy management in ubicomp. The enhancements being expected include [1] improvements in location refresh rates and accuracy, the application of land-based GPS systems, development of better protocols optimised for transmission according to distance criteria and refining the precision of the distance criteria to apply the protocol. The understanding of distance coverages by transmitted packets in ubicomp environments and corresponding variations over different node densities, is undeniably gainful for refining transmission protocols in MANETs. One distinct empirical study was carried previously [27] in which metric Maximum CBR Distance, Max_CBR_Dist, was devised and

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, Max_CBR_DistMaximum CBR Distance, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANETMobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value.

Pages: 16 - 21 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-03

4. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR SENDER FAIRNESS PROPORTION ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION-AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: Consequential research is currently being invested on as concerns location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies [1-56]. Attempts for their merging are still at early stages and are not yielding commendable results. One crucial factor for this successful merging remains correct protocol design approaches, which is currently regarded as heuristic and inadequately suited for implementation [94]. Advancements in middleware services and ubicomp network architecture are also desirable [95, 96]. A well-structured objective that manifests along such development path in ubicomp is reaching out for “realism” in design and evaluation of wireless routing protocols [97]. Such studies will entail serious technical constituents useful for further studies of predictability in ubicomp. Their importance is high since “realism” will propagate into each ubicomp feature. One such feature was studied previously [25] to assess the trend of Sender Fairness Proportion (S_FP) obse

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, S_FP- Sender Fairness Proportion, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value

Pages: 22 - 28 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-04

5. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR PACKETS PER DISTANCE ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION- AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: The fields of location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies are subject to intense research [1-57]. Their merging is also subject to lots of attention. In particular, the enforcement of location-aware transmission strategies is prone to enhance energy management in ubicomp. Amongst the enhancements awaited [1] are: the application of landbased GPS systems, improved location refresh rates and accuracy, development of better protocols optimised for transmission according to distance criteria and refining the precision of the distance criteria to apply the protocol. The knowledge of distance coverages by transmitted packets in ubicomp and corresponding variations over different node densities, is definitely useful for refining transmission protocols in MANETs. Such an empirical study was made previously [26] whereby the metric Packets Per Distance, PPD, was devised and studied. This was followed by another study [42] in which the trends of parameters of equa

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, PPD- Packets Per Distance, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value

Pages: 29 - 36 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-05

6. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR MINIMUM FAIRNESS PROPORTION ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION-AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: The fields of location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies remain serious topics of research and development [1-54]. Presently, the merging of these fields has a lot to undergo, especially as concerns correct protocol design approaches which is determinant for such successful merging. Nevertheless, such approaches are considered as heuristic and poorly adapted for implementation [92]. Upgrades in middleware services and ubicomp network architecture is also desired [93, 94]. A judiciously defined objective in such vision for ubicomp advancement is accomplishing “realism” in design and evaluation of wireless routing protocols [95]. Such studies will yield components better suited for further studies of predictability in ubicomp. Such components are nonnegligible since “realism” will propagate into every feature related to ubicomp, one of which was pondered over previously [23] to assess the trend of Minimum Fairness Proportion (Min_FP) observable for CBRs

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, Min_FP- Minimum Fairness Proportion, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANETMobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value.

Pages: 37 - 44 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-06

7. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR MINIMUM CBR DISTANCE ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION-AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: Pervasive computing constitute of many sub fields including location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies, which are stressed to serious research [1-59]. Albeit these efforts, their merging still has a long way to go before fruitfully materialising. More precisely here, the enforcement of location-aware transmission strategies is prospected to enhance energy management in ubicomp. Such enhancements expected [1] englobes improvements in location accuracy and refresh rates, the application of land-based GPS systems, development of better protocols optimised for transmission according to distance criteria and refining the precision of the distance criteria to apply the protocol. The learning of distance coverages by transmitted packets in ubicomp environments and corresponding variations over different node densities, is unquestionably advantageous for polishing transmission protocols in MANETs. One clear cut empirical study was conducted formerly [28] in wh

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, Min_CBR_DistMinimum CBR Distance, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANETMobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value.

Pages: 45 - 50 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-07

8. TREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR RANGE CBR DISTANCE ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION- AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: Many fields of research are concerned with pervasive computing, e.g., location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies. In spite of all intense research put in these sub-fields [1-60], their merging still lies along a long way ahead before yielding useful results. More distinctly here, the exertion of location-aware transmission strategies is envisioned to enhance energy management in ubicomp. Such enhancements expected [1] encompass improvements in location accuracy and refresh rates, the application of land-based GPS systems, development of better protocols optimised for transmission according to distance criteria and fine-tuning the precision of the distance criteria to apply the protocol. The know-how of distance coverages by transmitted packets in ubicomp environments and corresponding variations over different node densities, is assuredly profitable for refining transmission protocols in MANETs. One particular empirical study was carried out formerly [

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, R_CBR_Dist- Range CBR Distance, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value.

Pages: 51 - 58 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-08

9. EXTENDING SENDER NODE BATTERY AVAILABILITY IN UBICOMP WITH LOCATION-AWARE MANET TRANSMISSION.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: Significant research is on the way for locationtracking in mobile environment [62-99]. Development is expected like devising new functionalities and applications and improving ways of doing existing activities [2] in mobile and ubicomp environment. Several questions will crop up in this area and whose answers depend on components not yet developed. As and when these components will be developed, more such questions will be credulously answered. In MANETs, user nodes may be freed from routing tasks of other sender nodes’ CBRs if MANET nodes are supplied as infrastructure. In such circumstance, sender nodes will be achieving considerable energy savings over varying node densities, as presented in former paper [14] whereby metric SES was illustrated. Following results presented [14], the next level of probing is laid as: “By what factor can the sender nodes’ battery availability be extended? How does this factor vary over varying node numbers in ubicomp topographies?” The results of this

Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, ES- Energy Savings, SESSender ES, EC-Energy consumed, SEC- Sender EC, MECMean EC, BAEF- Battery Availability Extension Factor, MBAEF- Mean BAEF.

Pages: 59 - 63 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-09

10. EXTENSION OF OVERALL NODE BATTERY EXTRA AVAILABILITY IN UBICOMP WITH LOCATION-AWARE MANET TRANSMISSION COMPARED TO DIRECT NODE-TO-NODE TRANSMISSION.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: The impact of location-tracking in mobile environments matters tremendously into performance of ubicomp functionalities and justifies research effort put in it [1-10]. Along with progresses in ubicomp, several questions will crop up and whose answers depend on components not yet put forward. Hence, empirical and simulator based supports to answer these questions are required as starting points. A prior such study was conducted to find trends of energy savings achievable by applying location-aware direct Node-To-Node (NTN) transmission strategies [2] from the perspective of overall nodes, whereby all user nodes in the topography contribute in routing tasks. Another follow-up study was carried out to model the trends of Overall Energy Savings achievable in location-aware MANET transmission [15] from the notion of all user nodes contributing to routing tasks of other user’s transmissions, i.e. MANET nodes are NOT supplied as infrastructure. Following these two studies [2, 15], the next le

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, NTN- Node-To-Node, ESEnergy Savings, OES- Overall ES, OLNTNES- Overall Less NTN ES, EC-Energy consumed, OLNTNEC- Overall Less NTN EC, BAEF- Battery Availability Extension Factor, MBAEF- Mean BAEF.

Pages: 70 - 75 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-11

11. EXTENSION OF SENDER NODE BATTERY EXTRA AVAILABILITY IN UBICOMP WITH LOCATION-AWARE MANET TRANSMISSION COMPARED TO DIRECT NODE-TO-NODE TRANSMISSION.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: The field of location-tracking in mobile environments is of utmost necessity and justifies the research investments put in it [1-10] with correspondingly commendable output. With progresses in ubicomp happening, several questions will crop up and whose answers depend on components not yet developed and hence empirical supports to answer these questions may serve as welcome starting points. A previous such study was undertaken to find trends of energy savings achievable by applying location-aware direct Node-To- Node (NTN) transmission strategies [2]. Another study was conducted to model the trends of sender energy savings (SES) achievable in location-aware MANET transmission [14] from the perspective of user nodes being freed from routing tasks of other user’s transmissions, i.e. MANET nodes are supplied as infrastructure. Following these two studies [2, 14], the next level of research is laid as: “By what extra amount can the sender nodes’ battery availability be extended in location-

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUCMobile and Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, NTN- Node-To-Node, ESEnergy Savings, SES- Sender ES, SLNTNES- Sender Less NTN ES, EC-Energy consumed, SLNTNEC- Sender Less NTN EC, BAEF- Battery Availability Extension Factor, MBAEF- Mean BAEF.

Pages: 76 - 80 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-12

12. METHODOLOGY FORMULATION FOR EXACT LOCATION TRACKING OF NODE POSITIONS IN UBICOMP MANETS USING NS2.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: The need for reliability in the field of ubicomp is well recognised [1] so as to make business and day-today running of ubicomp dependable. Along with ubicomp progresses, several reliability related questions will also crop up and quite some research has been based on empirical simulator based approaches to supply answers [14-65] and new metrics for ubicomp have been laid forward. What now must be put forward in research community is the methodology that was devised so that the previous work [14-65] could be carried out. The methodology itself has been novel and required designing and implementing components that were not previously developed nor was available off-the-shelf. The methodology is split into five steps. In this paper, the first step concerning methodology of gathering the exact location of positions and its particularities are put forward. This is carried out irrespective of concerns for whether MANET nodes are supplied as infrastructure or not. The results of this study c

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, NS2- Network Simulator 2.

Pages: 81 - 87 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-13

13. METHODOLOGY OF AUTOMATED EXTRACTION OF DATA FROM FILES FOR EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN UBICOMP MANETS.

Authors: NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY , M. KALEEM GALAMALI

Abstract: The future of ubicomp will undoubtedly proliferate with features of reliability and adaptability well addressed [1]. Ubicomp technology will succeed in business and day-to-day functionalities based on suitably designed metrics and known trends of these metrics, at least from the starting point of simulator. Such work are being forwarded [14-65]. What remains to be put forward to the research community is the methodology that was devised so that the prior work [14-65] could be undertaken. The methodology itself has been novel and required designing and implementing components not formerly produced, nor are available off-the-shelf. The methodology is split into five steps. In this paper, the fifth step concerning methodology of automated extraction of data from files for generating final results and reporting the particularities involved. This work is undertaken in TCL over results generated form NS2. The results of this study will serve in guiding other researchers towards better organi

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, NS2- Network Simulator 2, ch_sq least reduced Chi-square

Pages: 88 - 92 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-14

14. METHODOLOGY OF MANET ROUTE FORMULATION AND TRACKING NODES ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING NS2.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: In all engineering fields, as development proceeds, the notion of reliability start creeping in mostly with the aim of satisfying dependability and day-to-day running of the technology. Ubicomp is not spared from this need for reliability [1]. Quite some research has been done in this direction [14-65] whereby a total of sixteen new metrics have been studied with the aim of formulating reliability predictability features for MANETs in Ubicomp. In a prior paper [66], it was mentioned that the methodology used for developing results over the sixteen metrics, was also novel and involved implementing components not previously available. The methodology is split into five steps. In this paper, the second step concerning methodology for “MANET Route Formulation” and “Tracking Nodes Energy Expenditure” together with its design and implementation particularities are put forward. It is pointed out that this work is carried out irrespective of concerns for MANET nodes being supplied as infrastru

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, NS2- Network Simulator 2.

Pages: 93 - 100 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-15

15. METHODOLOGY FORMULATION FOR GENERATING MANET RESULTS FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND PACKET DISTANCE CONSIDERATIONS IN UBICOMP MANETS.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: Reliability is among the key features that must be addressed in all pieces of technology in order to undertake wide deployment and integration of the technology in everyday life [1]. This also affects ubicomp whereby knowledge of trends of metrics formulated will serve towards constructing reliability frameworks. Quite some work has been conducted based on simulator in this direction [14-65] and new metrics for ubicomp have been laid forward. In former papers [66-68], it was mentioned that the methodology devised for producing the results concerning the sixteen metrics was also novel and necessitated implementing components not existent so far. The methodology was split into five steps. In this paper, the fourth step concerning methodology for generating MANET results for ubicomp MANETs, along with its design and implementation particularities is elaborated. The MANET nodes are assumed as behaving properly and no concern for nodes being supplied as infrastructure or not is taken. The r

Keywords: - Ubiquitous Computing, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, NS2- Network Simulator 2.

Pages: 101 - 107 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-16

16. ON THE COMPUTATION OF THE WCET FOR LEON3 AND MIPS PROCESSORS

Authors: BRUNO GREEN , CELSO MACIEL DA COSTA , GUILHERME DEBOM

Abstract: In the last two decades, the worst-case execution time (WCET) bound computation was a topic mainly related with hard real-time systems for aerospace and defense applications. Recently, however, it has become crucial in other domains dealing with timing guarantees. This includes among others, the automotive industry, where V2V and V2X applications for autonomous vehicles are demanding not only fault-tolerant responsiveness, but also the guarantee that timing deadlines will not be violated. In this sense, it is a mandatory condition to have an accurate determination of the WCET parameter in order to guarantee the hard-real time response of these critical systems to the environment. We propose in this paper a method to bound WCET for workloads running in the LEON3 and MIPS architectures. This approach performs a static timing analysis of the application code and based on the IPET technique, bounds the WCET. In addition to the use of the IPET technique, the proposed approach also takes adv

Keywords: Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET), LEON3 Processor, MIPS Processor, Implicity Path Enumeration Technique (IPET), Prediction of critical code execution time, Static Timing Analysis.

Pages: 120 - 125 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-19

17. EFFICIENT METHOD OF CONTEXT-AWARE ON MOBILE COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS

Authors: EUIIN CHOI , TEMUUJIN.B , WONSEOK KIM

Abstract: The development of mobile devices and the spread of wireless network help share and exchange information and resources more easily. Therefore users are able to use the information and service more free than previous wire network due to development of wireless network and device. In order to provide appropriate user services, it enables to recognize user’s current state, analyze the user’s profile like user’s tendency and preference, and draw the service answering the user’s request. Most existing frameworks, however, are not very suitable for mobile devices because they were proposed on the web-based. And other context information except location information among user’s context information is not much considered. Therefore, this paper proposed the context-aware framework, which provides more suitable services by using user’s context and profile.

Keywords: Cloud computing, Context-aware, Provisioning, Intelligence Service, Mobile cloud computing

Pages: 125 - 127 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-33

18. ELECTROACUPUNCTURE SYSTEM USING FUZZY RULES

Authors: GEUK LEE , JI-HO CHO

Abstract: Recently, the scientific study from traditional oriental medicine is being progressed. Moreover, through both oriental medicine and western medicine are cooperated with medical examination and treatment, the study in cooperation of merits from oriental medicine as well as from western medicine is progressed. In this paper, we will develop automatic needle shot using fuzzy rules and USN techniques, which a user can choose meridian pathways from the menu items built in the cellular phone, so it can perceive patient's body conditions and launch an aneurysm electric pressure of a cycle.

Keywords: Pulse wave, Fuzzy rules, Expert system

Pages: 128 - 131 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-34

19. ANALYSIS OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL DYNAMIC PATTERNS OF GAIT FOR RECOGNITION

Authors: SONIA DAS , SUKADEV MEHER , UPENDRA KUMAR SAHOO

Abstract: This work presents a five-phase automatic gait recognition method that analyzes the spatiotemporal shape and dynamic motion (STS-DM) characteristics of a human subject's silhouette to identify the subject in the presence of many challenging factors that affect gait. Phase-1 describes Krawtchouk Moments for feature extraction; phase-2 describes phase weighted magnitude spectra of the Fourier descriptor of a silhouette. Phase-3 gives a full body shape and motion analysis using ellipses. In Phase-4, dynamic time warping is used to analyze thigh angle rotation pattern. In phase-5 DHT based height varying signal pattern is analyzed. Five phases are fused to give a robust identification system.

Keywords: Krawtchouk Moments; STS-DM;DTW; DHT

Pages: 132 - 135 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-40

20. ECONOMIC VALUATION OF THE SUNDARBANS RESERVED FOREST OF BANGLADESH: THE ZONAL TRAVEL COST METHOD

Authors: RAISA BASHAR

Abstract: Sundarbans Reserved Forest hosts the largest single block of tidal, salt - water mangrove forest on Earth with a diverse collection of flora and fauna, including many endangered ones. It is thus, (and also generally) necessary to find an appropriate estimation of the recreational benefits of this world - renowned region as a tool for the conservation of biodiversity, as well as the devel opm ent of ecotourism, there. This report has been designed to do just that (estimate the recreational value) and to exhibit a relationship between the Sundarbans Reserved Forest (SRF) in Bangladesh and travel cost, using the responses of the visitors to th is region from all over Bangladesh. A zonal approach of the travel cost technique has been u sed here and the sample was 300 visitors of SRF over a period of seven days. The analysis yielded that the total value of the environmental resources of SRF is arou nd 197 million Tk./year. A suggestion has also been made of initiating an entrance fee of 50

Keywords: travel cost, valuation, Sundarbans

Pages: 6 - 11 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-133-7-51

21. TTREND ANALYSES OF CRITICAL VALUES OBTAINED FOR RANGE CBR DISTANCE ACHIEVABLE IN UBICOMP MANETS USING LOCATION- AWARE TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES.

Authors: M. KALEEM GALAMALI , NAWAZ MOHAMUDALLY

Abstract: Many fields of research are concerned with pervasive computing, e.g., location-tracking, ubicomp functionalities and MANET transmission strategies. In spite of all intense research put in these sub-fields [1-60], their merging still lies along a long way ahead before yielding useful results. More distinctly here, the exertion of location-aware transmission strategies is envisioned to enhance energy management in ubicomp. Such enhancements expected [1] encompass improvements in location accuracy and refresh rates, the application of land-based GPS systems, development of better protocols optimised for transmission according to distance criteria and fine-tuning the precision of the distance criteria to apply the protocol. The know-how of distance coverages by transmitted packets in ubicomp environments and corresponding variations over different node densities, is assuredly profitable for refining transmission protocols in MANETs. One particular empirical study was carried out formerly [

Keywords: Ubicomp- Ubiquitous Computing, MAUC- Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing, R_CBR_Dist- Range CBR Distance, CBR- Constant Bit Rate, MANET- Mobile Adhoc Network, CV- Critical Value

Pages: 51 - 58 | DOI: 10.15224/978-1-63248-134-4-08

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