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Proceedings of

International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Networks CCN 2011

Date
03-Jun-2011
Location
Chandigarh , India
Authors
372
ISBN
978-981-07-1847-3-1027

156 Articles Published

1. DESIGN OF ADVANCED COMPUTER CONTROLLED GPS ASSISTED INTEGRATED UNMANNED ROBOTIC GROUND VEHICLE FOR DEFENSE OPERATION

Authors: S.KOHILA , T.KARTHICK

Abstract: The paradigm of GPS based Unmanned Robotic Ground Vehicle administered by the computer in the control room to exercise the defense operation is the lineation of the paper. The paper domain comprises of a self navigating robotic platform as a base on which the surveillance system and the remote triggered for a weapon are fitted. The microcontroller acts as a prime controlling element for the custom built vehicle.

Keywords: Microcontroller, GPS Receiver, PIR Sensor, Wireless Camera, Surveillance, Servo pan mechanism and Weapon system.

Pages: 1 - 6 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

2. IMPLEMENTATION OF LFSR COUNTER USING CMOS VLSI TECHNOLOGY

Authors: K.VASUDEVA REDDY , M.MAHABOOB BASHA

Abstract: As chip manufacturing technology is suddenly on the threshold of major evaluation, which shrinks chip in size and performance, LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) is implemented in layout level which develops the low power consumption chip, using recent CMOS,sub-micrometer layout tools. Thus LFSR counter can be a new trend setter in cryptography and is also beneficial as compared to GRAY & BINARY counter and variety of other applications.

Keywords: Chip technology, Layout level, LFSR, Pass transistor.

Pages: 24 - 28 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

3. IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM BASED ON STATISTICAL FEATURE ANALYSIS USING HAAR WAVELET

Authors: REGA. R

Abstract: Iris recognition is the most reliable biometric identification system with highest accuracy level. This paper includes preprocessing, segmentation, normalization, Haar wavelet decomposition, statistical feature extraction and feature matching. The matching of two iris patterns is done using hamming distance. Experiments are done using the eye images from CASIA database (Chinese Academy of Sciences).

Keywords: preprocessing, segmentation, Haar wavelet, feature extraction, feature matching

Pages: 29 - 32 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

4. LOGICAL EFFORT TO STUDY AND COMPARE THE PERFORMANCE OF VLSI ADDERS

Authors: GAURAV DHIMAN , MANOJ KUMAR , P.K GHOSH , SATYAJIT ANAND

Abstract: CMOS logic gates are basic building blocks for VLSI adder’s circuits. The delay through these gates is related to their sizes and terminal loads. Logical effort is a technique, which gives insight about proper sizing of CMOS logic gates to have the minimum achievable delay. In this paper, we discuss first the technique of logical effort; three common architectures for VLSI adders are sized using logical effort to get the minimum possible delay. Simulated results are used to design fast CMOS circ

Keywords: Static-CMOS Xor, Mux Gate, optimization, Logical Effort.

Pages: 33 - 38 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

5. ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM ERROR LOG USING ASSOCIATION MINING

Authors: KAMLESH KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA , RACHANA MISHRA , SHIRISH MOHAN DUBEY

Abstract: With the growth of communication networks, event logs are increasing in size at a fast rate. Today, our operating systems that generate tens of gigabytes of log data per day. Event Viewer maintains logs about program, security, and system events. You can obtain information about your hardware, software & system components. Apriori is frequently adopted to discover frequent item sets, from which strong association rules can be easily generated, from among massive amounts of transactional or relat

Keywords: Data mining, frequent set event viewer, error logs analysis.

Pages: 39 - 44 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

6. SIMULATION OF LOW POWER ARCHITECTURE OF FINITE STATE MACHINE

Authors: DINESH CHANDRA , HIMANI MITTAL , SAMPATH KUMAR

Abstract: With the predominance of mobile devices, rising energy costs, and an awareness of green practices,power consumption has become a major concern for design engineers. When power consumption is analyzed, it breaks down into two main components: static or leakage power, which occurs naturally when components are idle and powered on; and dynamic power, which is the power consumed when components are switching

Keywords: FSM Decomposition[1] ,Architectural level [2] ,Sub finite state machines , Decoder circuitry , Power consumption

Pages: 49 - 54 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

7. FACIAL FEATURE POINT EXTRACTION METHODS-REVIEW

Authors: B.J.CHILKE , D.R.DANDEKAR

Abstract: Facial feature point extraction is an important step in automated visual interpretation and human face recognition. face recognition is difficult visual representation in large part because it requires differentiation among human faces which vary subtly from each other. The objective of this paper is that to find out different methods use for feature point extraction from faces and highlight their performance. Based on this study we are proposed one method which give better accuracy, less comput

Keywords: — Enhancement of image, Edge detection, Thresholding, Geometrical method, Susan corner detector, etc .

Pages: 55 - 58 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

8. DEVELOPING WEB APPLICATION USING WEB MESHUP TECHNOLOGY

Authors: NITIN KHANKAR

Abstract: This paper reviews a web mash up is a web application that takes information from one or more sources and presents it in a new way or with a unique layout. The term mash-up originated in the music industry. It is sometimes spelled mashup

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, k-NN classifier, crossover, mutation, reproduction Text classification, Similarity metrics, dictionary, fitness function

Pages: 59 - 64 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

9. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK

Authors: T.K.DESHMUKH , V.M.DESHMUKH

Abstract: this paper begins with a detection of license plates using various strategies. The system has many practical applications such as: parking accounting systems, traffic monitoring and security systems of many kinds. The results of this technique are given and then reviewed. Finally, possible extensions to make the algorithm more robust are discussed.

Keywords: O.C.R, Normalization, Extraction, Segmentation, Dilation, Crop, Neural Network etc.

Pages: 65 - 69 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

10. INSIGHT INTO CLOUD SECURITY ISSUES

Authors: REVATHY.S

Abstract: Cloud computing can provide infinite computing resources on demand due to its high scalability in nature, which eliminates the needs for Cloud service providers to plan far ahead on hardware provisioning. Security is the biggest challenge to promote cloud computing currently. Trust has proved to be one of the most important and effective alternative means to construct security in distributed systems. Multi located data storage and services in the Cloud make privacy issues even worse.

Keywords: cloud computing, security framework, identity management system

Pages: 70 - 73 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

11. ICI SELF CANCELLATION SCHEME FOR OFDM SYSTEM

Authors: KARAN SINGH GAUR , MONIKA RAWAT , SONAM AGGARWAL

Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is emerging as the preferred modulation scheme in modern high data rate wireless communication systems. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is their inherent sensitivity to any frequency shift in the signal.

Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), emerging, preferred modulation, modern high data rate wireless communication systems

Pages: 74 - 77 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

12. THEORETICALLY AND COMPARATIVELY ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT FREQUENT PATTERN MINING ALGORITHMS

Authors: GIRIJA SHANKAR DEWANGAN , SAMTA GAJHIYE

Abstract: In this paper we are trying to comparing the different sequential data mining algorithms for finding the frequent data patterns. There are many algorithms have designed for finding the frequent data patterns from the transactional database. Transactional database have specified number of transactions itemsets T, which are used for knowledge discovery.

Keywords: Sequential Data mining Algorithm, Aprori Algorithm, Top-K Closed Itemset frequent patterns mining, LCM (Linear Closed Itemset Mininer) algorithm.

Pages: 78 - 80 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

13. INTERFERENCE FREE COMMUNICATION COVERAGE AND IMPROVED LIFETIME OF WPSN

Authors: M.V.SUDHAKAR , N.SRIKANTA

Abstract: System lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is inversely proportional to the energy consumed by critically energyconstrained sensor nodes during RF transmission. In that regard, modulated backscattering (MB) is a promising design choice, in which sensor nodes send their data just by switching their antenna impedance and reflecting the incident signal coming from an RF source.

Keywords: Sensor networks, wireless passive sensor networks, modulated backscattering, communication coverage.

Pages: 85 - 88 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

14. TLOV REBROADCASTING METHOD FOR VANET

Authors: GAURAV KUMAR GAUR , L.S.MAURYA

Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc network is surging in popularity in which vehicle constitute the mobility nodes in network. Profits of using improved VANET technology are reduce traffic congestion, provide general information services and provide safety critical applications such as enhanced lane and distance control and emergency break warning etc.

Keywords: TLOV, VANET, GPS

Pages: 89 - 92 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

15. EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES FOR HIERARCHICAL SCHEDULING OF REAL-TIME SYSTEMS

Authors: P.VIJAYKUMAR

Abstract: The Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) has been introduced as a design-time framework to enable compositional schedulability analysis of embedded software systems with realtime properties. In this paper, a software system consists of a number of semi-independent components called Subsystems.

Keywords: Hierarchical Scheduling, operation system, real time system, scheduling, resource sharing, synchronization

Pages: 93 - 101 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

16. DESIGN OF CONVEYOR MONITORING CONTROLLER WITH WIRELESS SYSTEM

Authors: P.H.RANGAREE , SHEEJA S.SURESH

Abstract: In this paper we design a conveyor monitoring controller with wireless system. Conveyor systems are one of the commonly used devices for the transportation of parts from one workplace to another and for horizontal transport in manufacturing systems.

Keywords: Vb.net : Visual Basic.net BASCON51 : Basic Compiler-51 coding

Pages: 102 - 107 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO) AND ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY (ABC) ALGORITHM

Authors: BHAVIN D. GAJJAR , RAJESH A. THAKKER , RAVI C. BUTANI

Abstract: Swarm intelligence is a research branch that models the population of interacting agents or swarms that are able to self-organize. An ant colony, a flock of birds or an immune system is a typical example of a swarm system.

Keywords: ABC, benchmark function, heuristic search, MLPSO, PSO, swarm optimization

Pages: 108 - 112 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

18. DESIGN OF DUAL-CORE EMBEDDED SYSTEM USING LEON3 PROCESSOR

Authors: DINESH V. PADOLE , RAHUL K. HIWARE

Abstract: A multi-core processor is a single integrated circuit in which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks. This paper presents dual-core embedded system designed with two LEON3 processors. Dual-core system has developed with centralized shared memory for process sharing, shared bus and tightly-coupled homogeneous scalable multi processor architecture.

Keywords: Multi-Core, Processor, LEON3, Leon Processor, Process Management in Multi-Core System, Embedded System, Controller

Pages: 113 - 117 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

19. DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR XTEA

Authors: J.BALAKRISHNA , PHILEMON DANIEL , RAJEEVAN CHANDEL

Abstract: These days Security is an important issue in any type of communication systems. The pervasive communication is the new research area. An ever growing demand for security in such types of communication networks particularly wireless pervasive communication system demands efficient hardware solutions. In this circuit size reduction is the one of the requirement as to lower the cost.

Keywords: Design & Implementation of VLSI Architecture for XTEA

Pages: 118 - 123 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

20. NETWORKS MONITORING SYSTEM TOOLS: AN EXPLORATORY APPROACH

Authors: JUGNU GAUR , OCHIN

Abstract: A network is comprises of many things as infrastructure components, network protocols, applications, services, servers, and network infrastructure. Due to the fast development of technologies the complexity level to manage the networks are a challenging job now a days. For large networks it is a tedious task to monitor the entire network manually from different aspects and to correct the faults at its earlier or to prevent effectively the faults to occur.

Keywords: Network Monitoring, n e t work Troubleshooting, faultdetection ,QoS , Open Source Network Monitoring Tools

Pages: 124 - 128 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

21. ADVANCED IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF MALARIAL PARASITE IN BLOOD IMAGES

Authors: JIGYASHA SONI , NIPUN MISHRA

Abstract: Malaria is a serious global health problem, and rapid, accurate diagnosis is required to control the disease. An image processing algorithm to automate the diagnosis of malaria in blood images is developed in this project. The image classification system is designed to positively identify malaria parasites present in thin blood smears, and differentiate the species of malaria. Images are acquired using a charge-coupled device camera connected to a light microscope.

Keywords: component, formatting,species,insert

Pages: 129 - 137 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

22. INTER DOMAIN PACKET FILTERS FOR IP FORGING ATTACKS

Authors: A. RAVI , M.SRINIVASA ROA , P.V.RAVI KANTH

Abstract: The Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a serious threat to the legitimate use of the Internet. Even Prevention mechanisms are attacked by the ability of attackers to forge or spoof the source addresses in IP packets. By employing IP spoofing, attackers can avoid detection and put a substantial burden on the destination network for policing attack packets.

Keywords: IP spoofing, DDoS, BGP, networklevel security and protection, routing protocols.

Pages: 138 - 143 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

23. MARKOVA SCHEME FOR CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION

Authors: B.SANJAYA GANDHI , K.LAKSHMINADH , R.LALU NAIK , S.GOPI KRISHNA

Abstract: as credit card becomes the most popular mode of payment for both online as well as regular purchase, cases of fraud associated with it are also rising. In this paper, we model the sequence of operations in credit card transaction processing using a Hidden Markov Model and show how it can be used for the detection of frauds. An HMM is initially trained with the normal behavior of a cardholder.

Keywords: TERMS: ONLINE SHOPPING, CREDIT CARD, SECURITY, FRAUD FINDING, HMM.

Pages: 144 - 147 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

24. EFFECTIVE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT CONTROL FUNCTIONS FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Authors: D. ILANGOVAN , V. UMA

Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the operations management control functions for Information Systems (IS) in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In the current knowledge driven economy, small and medium enterprises should deploy adequate IS operations management control mechanisms in place for efficient functioning.

Keywords: - Information Systems, Operations Management Controls, Small and Medium Enterprise.

Pages: 148 - 153 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

25. CONTENT BASED RETRIEVAL FOR NUMBER PLATE EXTRACTION OF VEHICLE

Authors: MOHAMMAD IMROZE KHAN , SAMIKSHA SONI

Abstract: Number plate recognition (NPR) is one of the most important applications of applying computer techniques towards intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In order to recognize a number plate efficiently, location and extraction of the number plate is the key step. Hence finding the position of a number plate in a vehicle image is considered to be the most crucial step of an NPR system, and this in turn greatly affects the recognition rate and overall speed of the whole system.

Keywords: Dilation, Sobel operator, RGB, pixels, gray scale, binarization

Pages: 154 - 157 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

26. MULTI-RESOLUTION DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM BASED IMAGE COMPRESSION

Authors: MOHAMMAD IMROZE KHAN , SAMIKSHA SONI , ANJALI CHANDRA , BIBHUDENDRA ACHARYA

Abstract: Multi-resolution analysis has been a very popular with compression specially in video streaming because it eliminates the blocking effects of the DCT which become more prominent in videos. Wavelets are based on the multi-resolution but it is well acknowledged that wavelets are far more expensive in terms of hardware and software as compared to DCT. DCT, however, has been used to compress image but not for multi resolution image analysis.

Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform, Image Compression, Multi-Resolution Analysis and DCT.

Pages: 158 - 162 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

27. LAND CLASSIFICATION AND CROP IDENTIFICATION USING GABOR WAVELET TRANSFORM ON SATELLITE IMAGES

Authors: S. S. GODBOLE , SONALI P. MILMILE

Abstract: the aim of this research is to evaluate crop discrimination using satellite data based on textural information. This paper illustrates the use of Gabor wavelet transform on satellite images to classify the land in to crop land and non-crop land and to classify different crops.

Keywords: Remote sensing, Discrete Cosine Transform, Colour space transform, Gabor Wavelet transform, Feature extraction

Pages: 163 - 166 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

28. UNIT EMBEDDED ZEROTREE CODING

Authors: AKHILENDRA SINGH YADAV , PARAMJEET SINGH JAMWAL , PARAS PRATEEK BHATNAGAR

Abstract: The EMBDDED ZEROTREE WAVELET (EZW) algorithm, as presented by J. Shapiro, is a simple yet powerful algorithm, in which bit-streams are generated in order of their significance in containing the image information [1]. The original EZW algorithm scans the entire wavelet decomposed image, at a stroke, during each pass. This work presents a modified method for coding images using EZW method, which works on the principal of fragmentation. The proposed method takes the smallest unit cell, generated fr

Keywords: Compression, EZW, zerotrees.

Pages: 167 - 171 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

29. TO REDUCE THE FALSE ALARM IN INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING SELF ORGANIZING MAP

Authors: NEETESH GUPTA , RITU RANJANI SINGH

Abstract: Intrusion detection systems aim to identify attacks with a high detection rate and a low false alarm rate. Classification-based data mining models for intrusion detection are often ineffective in dealing with dynamic changes in intrusion patterns and characteristics

Keywords: Intrusion detection system, neural network, data mining, False alarm, Self organizing map

Pages: 172 - 178 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

30. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF WEB USAGE MINING BY USING LEARNING BASED K-MEAN CLUSTERING

Authors: NEETESH GUPTA , VINITA SHRIVASTAVA

Abstract: Due to the increasing amount of data available online, the World Wide Web has becoming one of the most valuable resources for information retrievals and knowledge discoveries. Web mining technologies are the right solutions for knowledge discovery on the Web.

Keywords: Clustering algorithms, data mining, Unsupervised Learning algorithm,k-mean clustering, web usage mining.

Pages: 179 - 183 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

31. IMPLEMENTATION OF NETWORK BASED WORM INFECTION AND DETECTION

Authors: C.SHOBA BINDU , P.DORAVELU REDDY

Abstract: Self-duplicating, self-propagating malicious codes known as computer worms spread themselves without any human interaction and launch the most destructive attacks against computer networks. In this paper, we have successfully detected the worm propagation characteristics of different and using permutation scanning to find the worms using branch process model to provide total number of scan that ensure the worm will eventually die out.

Keywords: Statistical model, topology-aware worms, worm detection, worm infection, sophistication epidemic model

Pages: 184 - 187 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

32. PATTERN EVALUATION OF AES USING MONTE CARLO TEST

Authors: KARANVEER SINGH , RUPALI SYAL , SANDEEP MAHAPATRA , SURAJ KUMAR SUNAR

Abstract: Security is the important concern in the area of data communication. Through encryption security has been provided in data communication. Several encryption techniques are available for security where AES (Advance Encryption Standard) is one of the strongest symmetric cipher techniques which is not easy for any attacker to make attack on this technique.

Keywords: Encryption, Decryption, AES, Cryptanalysis, Security, Cipher text, Monte Carlo

Pages: 188 - 191 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

33. ADAPTIVE MULTI-PATH LINK QUALITY ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

Authors: SACHIDANAND S JOSHI

Abstract: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes interconnected by wireless media. Routing protocols for Wireless ad hoc networks have traditionally focused on finding paths with different link quality metrics such as minimum hop count, RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication), SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio), BER (Bit Error Rate). However, such paths can include slow or lossy links, leading to poor throughput. A routing algorithm can select better paths by explicitly taking the quali

Keywords: link qualit measurement, mp-dsr, manets,WSN

Pages: 192 - 196 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

34. GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR CLASSIFICATION IN DATA MINING

Authors: SHASHANK SONI , ANURADHA PUROHIT , JAI KUMAR RAI , POOJA SHARMA , VAISHALI GUPTA

Abstract: This paper focuses on performing rule based classification in Data Mining using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The objective functions namely comprehensibility, predictive accuracy, interestingness, coverage are used to evaluate the fitness value of each classification rule obtained using GA. For presenting our approach a real dataset is used. Experimental results shows that the rule based classification designed using GA efficiently identify the pattern using multiple objective functions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, data mining, classification, fitness function, crossover, mutation, reproduction

Pages: 197 - 201 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

35. JPEG IMAGE COMPRESSION USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

Authors: ABHRANIL DASGUPTA , REHNA V.J

Abstract: Computer technology these days is most focused on storage space and speed. Considerable advancements in this direction can be achieved through the usage of digital image compression techniques. In this paper, well studied singular value decomposition based JPEG Image Compression Technique is presented. Singular Value Decomposition is a way of factorizing matrices into a series of linear approximations that expose the underlying structure of the matrix.

Keywords: Singular Value Decomposition, JPEG images, Compression factor, Compression ratio, Rank, Eigen values, Eigen vectors, Singular value.

Pages: 202 - 207 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

36. AN EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO MANAGE NETWORK ELEMENTS IN A CAMPUS LIKE ENVIRONMENT

Authors: GIRISH , SRINIVAS.M.N

Abstract: with the changing trends and new developments, designing an Element Management System (EMS) for efficient management of network elements is a challenging task. Therefore a good design is essential to make such a system. The primary issues of element management are taken into consideration in this work and the main functions of an EMS are implemented.

Keywords: IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, SNMP, Element Management System, API, Operating System, Java, C++, URL

Pages: 213 - 217 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

37. CLUSTER COMPUTING

Authors: ARSHPREET KAUR , MANPREET KAUR MANN

Abstract: A cluster has been defined as a group of machines that may be viewed as a single entity for the purposes of control and job assignment. A cluster is a type of parallel or distributed processing system, which consists of a collection of interconnected stand-alone computers co - operatively working together as a single, integrated computing resource.

Keywords: Configuration, high-traffic Web sites, load balance traffic, parallel processing, usability, versatile, Web farm, Web page.

Pages: 218 - 222 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

38. SPEAKER RECOGNITION: A RESEARCH DIRECTION

Authors: DANVIR MANDAL , RITA YADAV

Abstract: Speaker recognition system can be divided in four stages, namely, analysis, feature extraction, modeling and testing. This paper gives an overview of major techniques developed in each stage so far. Such a review helps in understanding the developments that have been taken place in each stage and also available choices of techniques.

Keywords: speech analysis, feature extraction, speaker modeling,testing, speaker recognition, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).

Pages: 223 - 229 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

39. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS METHODS TO SEGMENT SHARP AND UNSHARP EDGED BRAIN TUMORS IN 2 D MRI

Authors: KAMAL K.MEHTA , MUKESH KUMAR

Abstract: Segmentation of Brain tumor accurately is a challenging task in MRI. The MRI image is an image that produces a high contrast images indicating regular and irregular tissues that help to distinguish the overlapping in margin of each limb.

Keywords: Graph cut method, Gray level, MRI image, Region growing, Random walk, Tumors, Segmentation etc.

Pages: 230 - 234 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

40. A SURVEY ON FAX OVER IP USING T.38 OVER SIP

Authors: DISHA S , SUMANA M.

Abstract: Facsimile (fax) transmission is very important to the world of business. In a world where a significant percentage of long distance Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) traffic is composed of fax, great savings in toll charges are possible by utilizing IP networks instead.

Keywords: Fax over IP, T.38, T.30, Session Initiation Protocol, Session description protocol, Proxy Servers, User agent client, Redirect Server.

Pages: 235 - 240 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

41. ADAPTIVE DATA HIDING APPROACH FOR TRUE COLOR IMAGE USING RANDOMIZATION TECHNIQUE

Authors: PRATEEK MISHRA , RAJKUMAR , RAJEEV SHRIVASTAVA

Abstract: In today’s scenario of internet world, hiding data with security is the highly challenging and desirable task. There are large numbers of techniques available which are capable of hiding data in cover media. The purpose of this research work is to develop a novel, secure and high capacity data hiding technique in 24 bit true color image. This novel approach uses pixels of 24 bit true color image to hide secret message. The proposed approach is adaptive and according to size of data it decides be

Keywords: LSB, MSE, PSNR, Steganography.

Pages: 241 - 246 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

42. A NOVEL SINGLE-FAULT DETECTION TECHNIQUE OF DIGITAL MICRO-FLUIDIC BIOCHIP

Authors: K. HANSDA , M. MAJUMDER , S. ROY

Abstract: A novel, efficient, single fault detection technique of a digital microfluidic based biochip is presented in this paper. The proposed methodology is based on parallel scanning of the microfluidic biochip by using multiple droplets. The traversal of micro-array is carried out by scanning the intermediate rows, columns and the boundaries in parallel. This technique allows us to traverse all the cells as well as all edges for detecting fault in the Digital Microfluidic Biochip (DMFB). Correctness a

Keywords: Biochip, Droplet, Micro-Array, Electrode

Pages: 247 - 250 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

43. WORK FLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: ARCHITECTURE AND SURVEY OF PRODUCTS AND ITS LIMITATIONS

Authors: ANKIT SHRIVASTAVA

Abstract: An organisation produces its work by passing through several business processes and documentation. Today, all most every organisation uses to manage these business process and documentation by the help of Information Technology. Those software products which manages several business work flows and also manages documentation is called work flow management system. There are numerous products has been launched by several organisations. Though all these systems are efficient enough but also have som

Keywords: Work flow management system, escalation, Process manager

Pages: 251 - 254 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

44. SECURITY ISSUES IN DISTRIBUTED MULTIHOP WIMAX NETWORKS

Authors: AMIT AGRAWAL , J M KELLER , R K DAVE

Abstract: In this paper, we study the existing standards in multihop WiMAX networks and their security issues. For secured communications, it is necessary to have hop-by-hop authentication for any multihop wireless networks. WiMAX multihop networks provide default hop-by-hop authentication in a distributed security mode only. Apart from this, the multihop standards should consider the existing security issues in mobile WiMAX standard [4]. It provides the solution for medium access control (MAC) – control

Keywords: WiMAX ; IEEE 802.16 d/e /j/m ; Multihop; Security.

Pages: 255 - 261 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

45. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OPEN SOURCE BUG MANAGEMENT TOOLS

Authors: JUGNU GAUR , OCHIN

Abstract: Traditionally bugs used to be reported and managed within excel sheets. But the problem was bugs were hard to manage, not accessible to everyone concerned in the project, difficult to monitor module wise defects, progress of the bugs resolution and on the basis of severity and priority wise defects analysis were not there. So the need of a common web based repository felt to manage and track the progress of all the reported bugs. Hence Bug Tracking tools or Bug Management Tools introduced as a w

Keywords: Software testing; bug; open source; bug management tool.

Pages: 262 - 267 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

46. TESTING THE TARGET SYSTEM

Authors: K.RAJANIKANTH , VIJAYALAKSHMI

Abstract: An embedded system consists of heterogeneous layers including hardware, HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer), OS kernel and application layer. Interactions between these layers are the software interfaces to be tested in an embedded system. The identified interfaces are important criterion that selects test cases and monitors the test results in order to detect faults and trace their causes. Because embedded systems commonly have slow processor and small memory, embedded software must be more effici

Keywords: Card Advanced Research Tool (CART), Target board, host system, firmware, Multimedia card (MMC).

Pages: 268 - 271 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

47. ONE-SOURCE ONLINE TOOLKIT - OOT

Authors: ASWATHA KUMAR. M

Abstract: This paper presents a toolkit for the testers which provides a good framework for software test design and test data generation especially for test diagnosis and validation. Basically, OOT is One Source Online Toolkit is a web based test case generator which provides a variety of tools and utilities to help improve test engineering efforts including software test documentation, software test case reduction, software test data preparation and a many other uncategorized software test functions. Te

Keywords: combinatorial testing, pair wise testing, subset test case generator, test case permutation generator, test coverage, test data generator, test design generator.

Pages: 272 - 276 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

48. SIMULATION OF VEHICULAR APPLICATION USING LEON ENVIRONMENT

Authors: DINESH V. PADOLE , ABHIJIT S. TITARMARE

Abstract: LEON3 is a 32-bit processor core conforming to the IEEE-1754 (SPARC V8) architecture. It is designed for embedded applications, combining high performance with low complexity and low power consumption. TSIM2 is a simulator that can emulate LEON3 based computer systems. It can also emulate user specific system-on-a-chip solutions by means of loadable modules. TSIM2 allows emulation of the LEON3 processor core with a completely user defined memory and I/O architecture. The emulated processor core

Keywords: LEON3 Processor, TSIM2, BCC, SPARC V8 Processor, RT Linux, elf –Snapgear.

Pages: 277 - 281 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

49. GLIP: A CONCURRENCY CONTROL PROTOCOL FOR CLIPPING INDEXING

Authors: P.V.RAVI KANTH , M.RAVI KANTH , N.SWATHI

Abstract: The project Concurrency Control Protocol for Clipping Indexing deals with the multidimensional databases. In multidimensional indexing trees, the overlapping of nodes will tend to degrade query performance, as one single point query may need to traverse multiple branches of the tree if the query point is in an overlapped area. Multidimensional databases are beginning to be used in a wide range of applications. To meet this fast-growing demand, the R-tree family is being applied to support fast a

Keywords: —Concurrency, indexing methods, spatial databases.

Pages: 282 - 286 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

50. AN APPROACH TO DEVELOP A SIMPLE ALGORITHM: RETRIEVAL OF TOP K OBJECTS FROM AN UNSORTED MULTIMEDIA DATABASE

Authors: FALGUNI CHAKRABORTY , RITA GANGULY

Abstract: During the last decade, multimedia has emerged as a major research and development area. With the advent of the information superhighway, a vast amount of data is currently available on the Internet. Previously Prof. Ronald Fagin developed an algorithm for finding of top k objects [1]. But there were some drawbacks; to improving these drawbacks Threshold Algorithm was introduced. But both of these algorithms required sorted order data. Here we are tried to introduce an algorithm in MDBMS in whic

Keywords: Multimedia Database, CBIR, Top k objects.

Pages: 293 - 296 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

51. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS FOR POLARIMETRIC SAR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

Authors: NITIN SHARMA , PURNIMA AHUJA

Abstract: In this paper, variety of classifiers for supervised target classification of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image explained. Compared to traditional classifiers such as ML classification,complex Wishart distribution or Adabo0st classifier, the SVM (Support Vector Machine) method is more robust, accurate and flexible. This algorithm not only uses a statistical classifier, but also preserves the purity of dominant polarimetric scattering properties. Different features or parameters e

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Polarimetry, supervised classification, support vector machine (SVM)

Pages: 297 - 301 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

52. SECURE COMPRESSION OF BITMAP CHARACTER USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR TRANSMISSION

Authors: ANJALI SINGH , DEEPIKA GUPTA , MOHIT ARORA , PRIYANKA GAUR

Abstract: The transmission of data across communication paths is an expensive process in respect time and bandwidth. Data compression is usually obtained by substituting a shorter symbol for an original symbol in the source data, which should contain the same information but with a smaller representation in length. The purpose of this paper is to show that neural networks may be promising tools for data compression without loss of information. We combine neural nets, standard statistical compression metho

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), statistical compression method, Back-propagation (BP), Hidden layer architecture, Weight matrix etc.

Pages: 302 - 305 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

53. TRACKING A VEHICLE USING GPS TECHNOLOGY

Authors: DEEPTI ARELA , MANJU KUMARI , MANOJ PRAJAPAT , VIMAL SONI

Abstract: In shipping industry where large fleet of vehicles were spread out over the vast expanses of ocean, the owner corporations often found it difficult to keep track of what was happening. As necessity is the mother of invention, so GPS tracking systems which originally were used in military operations found their application here. Now the commercial application grew popular for the all sorts of consumer’s vehicle, using tracking systems to prevent theft and enhance retrieval. GPS (Global Positionin

Keywords: Active & Passive tracking ,GPS system, triangulation, trilateration.

Pages: 306 - 309 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

54. REDUCING MESSAGE OVERHEAD IN ON-DEMAND MESH BASED MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS

Authors: PHILIP SAMUEL , SUJO VASU

Abstract: In wireless networks, due to limited battery power, it is crucial to reduce the transmission overhead and power consumption. In this paper we discuss how to achieve low transmission overhead and reduced power consumption by minimizing the transmission of redundant control messages. The popular on-demand multi cast routing protocols like AODV and ODMRP has drawbacks due to transmission overhead. As the mobility of communicating nodes increases the transmission overhead also increases as the numbe

Keywords: ad hoc, on demand, multi cast, routing protocols, ODMRP, AODV

Pages: 317 - 322 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

55. FUZZIFICATION OF EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ESTIMATION MODEL AND ITS COMPARISON

Authors: ASHISH KUMAR TRIPATHI , MEGHA RANI POTDAR , NEELAM SAHU , RAASHID ALI

Abstract: Accurate software estimation such as effort and cost estimation is a typical process and is a major issues in software project development. Estimation of software project effort and cost are very essential and necessary to improve software management decision.software estimation consist many estimation like cost estimation, quality estimation, effort estimation and risk analysis.This paper is confined on effort estimation based on fuzzy empirical model. Many empirical model were used in early da

Keywords: Software estimation , Walston – Felix Model , Bailey – Basili Model , Boehm Simple Model , Fuzzy Logic,KLOC.

Pages: 323 - 327 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

56. DESIGN OF REMOTE USER INTERFACE FOR WAVELET ANALYSIS OF NON STATIONARY SIGNALS FOR SPIKE DETECTION

Authors: KIRUTHIGA.C , SARAVANAN.V

Abstract: The biological signals such as EEG, ECG are non stationary in deterministic signals. The processing of these signals requires special analysis and computations. The chaoticity of these signals are analyzed. This result can be used as feature spaces for diagnosis of various diseases. In this paper, the EEG signals of epileptic patients are analyzed using wavelets and are provided with user interface. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in brain which results in high spikes.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Park mc-clellan filter, Wavelet packet transforms, Matlab, GUI

Pages: 333 - 337 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

57. INTERACTIVE CHATBOT

Authors: KAVITA PANKAJ SHIRSAT , SATISH R DEVANE

Abstract: Intelligent systems are computer programs that aim at providing instruction to humans. In recent years, conversational robots, usually known as chatter bots, become very popular in the Internet, and ALICE (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity) is probably the most popular one. ALICE brain is written in AIML (Artificial Intelligence Markup Language), an open XML language. They use a huge predefined question Answers database. We have developed a method for answering single answer questio

Keywords: Question Answer (QA) Artificial markup language (A.I.M.L) Natural Language Processing (NLP) Extensible Markup Language (XML) Knowledge Base (KB) Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity (ALICE)

Pages: 338 - 344 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

58. PCA, LDA & NEURAL NETWORK BASED FACE RECOGNITION

Authors: KSHAMA V. KULHALLI , SUPRIYA S. NALAWADE

Abstract: In today’s complex, geographically mobile, increasingly electronically inter-connected information society, accurate identification is becoming very important and the problem of identifying a person is becoming ever increasingly difficult. In this fast moving world to keep a watch on every individual is very tiresome and time consuming which is next to impossible. Automatic face recognition system has been designed to automatically detect the culprits from

Keywords: Pca, Lda and Neural network Back propagation Algorithm

Pages: 345 - 349 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

59. HOST-BASED INTRUSION DETECTION AGAINST DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS

Authors: HARMEET KAUR

Abstract: One of the greatest threats that network security faces nowadays is Distributed Denial of Service attacks. A newer version of the Denial of Service attack, also called Distributed Denial of Service attack or DDoS. In a distributed denialof- service (DDoS) attack, an attacker may use your computer to attack another computer. An attacker may attempt to: “flood” a network and thus reduce a legitimate user‟s bandwidth, prevent access to a service, or disrupt service to a specific system or a user. I

Keywords: Distributed Denial of Service, Host -based Intrusion Detection , Flood attack, Simulation

Pages: 350 - 355 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

60. SECURITY ISSUE OF E-GOVERNANCE

Authors: POOJA AGRAWAL , SURESH KASHYAP , VIKAS CHANDRA PANDEY , MINAKSHI AGRAWAL

Abstract: his is the age of information and technology. There are numerous opportunities for organizations to shape the future by providing efficient services and obtaining a competitive advantage for handling products and services. Egovernance refers to application of information technology tools in the administration to provide quick and transparency of information of programmes and policies of the governments to its citizens. The adoption of existing information technologies in the government administr

Keywords: - e-Government security, Engineering Life Cycle, Indian Computer Emergency Response Team.

Pages: 356 - 359 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

61. STUDY OF NETWORK SECURITY IN VOIP

Authors: SHREYAS R , SUDARSHAN K. S

Abstract: Voice over IP is one of the quickest developing Internet services and slowly replaces traditional telephony. However, while moving telephony to the public IP platform broadens its service capabilities, some security problems may occur. It is because the amount of threats existing in IP networks is much bigger than in case of traditional telephone networks. Therefore security challenges of VoIP public network are considered in this work in detail. Full security analysis is performed that covers m

Keywords: VoIP, Network Security, vulnerability , network architecture , threats.

Pages: 360 - 364 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

62. MODELING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IBURST, HIPERMAN AND GSM

Authors: K RAVINDRANATH

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a bandwidth-efficient multicast mechanism for heterogeneous wireless networks. Reducing the bandwidth cost of an Internet Protocol (IP) multicast tree by adaptively selecting the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile host to join the multicast group. The mechanism enables more mobile hosts, leads to the wireless bandwidth. Besides, the paths in the multicast, connecting to the selected share more common links to save the wireless bandwidth. This supports the

Keywords: simulated, result, shows, proposed, mechanism

Pages: 365 - 371 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

63. A 0.1-8 GHZ LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER DESIGN USING 0.18 MICROM CMOS TECHNOLOGY

Authors: JIGAR CHAUDHARI , RACHNA JANI , SHRUTI OZA

Abstract: A T-coil network can be implemented as a high order filter for bandwidth extension. This technique is incorporated into the design of the input matching and output peaking networks of a low-noise amplifier. The intrinsic capacitances within the transistors are exploited as a part of the wideband structure to extend the bandwidth. Using the proposed topology, a wideband low-noise amplifier with a bandwidth of 0.1–8 GHz, a maximum gain of 18 dB and noise figure of 6 dB (min) is achieved.

Keywords: T-coil network, feedback, bandwidth extension, gainflatness, center-tap inductor, wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA).

Pages: 372 - 377 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

64. ON DEMAND ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

Authors: AARTI BAIRAGI , PRASHANT PANSE

Abstract: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a network consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of a MANET routing protocol. Over the last 10 years, a variety of routing protocols have been developed and their performance simulations are made by network researchers. An efficient approach is to consider routing algorithms in which network connecti

Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Network, DSR, AODV, TORA

Pages: 378 - 381 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

65. HIERARCHICAL K-MEANS ALGORITHM(HK-MEANS) WITH AUTOMATICALLY DETECTED INITIAL CENTROIDS

Authors: RUPA G. MEHTA , VAISHALI R. PATEL

Abstract: Unsupervised learning is a technique to organize the data into meaningful way having similarity. Cluster analysis is the study of clustering techniques and algorithms which are helpful to discover important patterns from fundamental data without knowledge of category label for further analysis. k-Means algorithm is one of the most popular clustering algorithm among all partition based clustering algorithm to partition a dataset into meaningful patterns. k-Means algorithm suffers from the problem

Keywords: Clustering, Initial Centroids, k-Means Preprocessing, Outlier

Pages: 382 - 386 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

66. HYBRID APPROACH FOR SHOT BOUNDARY DETECTION FROM UNCOMPRESSED VIDEO STREAM

Authors: J.P. CHAUDHARI , KETAN CHAUDHARI

Abstract: To elaborate a video in terms of its content, it needs to be partitioned into its smallest visual unit called shot. To segment a video into shots, shot boundary is needed. Here hybrid approach adapted for uncompressed video shot transition detection. Color histogram is used for the cut and dissolve boundary. For cut boundary, traditional threshold technique works well but it fails in some cases like camera flash, fast zooming etc. To improve its performance 2nd derivative method is accepted for

Keywords: color histogram, gradual boundary detection, hard cut detection, shot boundary detection, twin comparison.

Pages: 387 - 390 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

67. ANALYSIS AND VERIFICATION OF SHOT BOUNDARY DETECTION IN VIDEO USING BLOCK BASED X2 HISTOGRAM METHOD

Authors: KETAN CHAUDHARI , P.I.PANCHAL , NAIMISH.THAKAR

Abstract: video shot boundary detection, which segments a video by detecting boundaries between camera shots, is usually the first and important step for content-based video retrieval. This paper present block based χ2 histogram method which is effective in detecting abrupt transitions and gradual transitions, respectively. A new pixel intensity based method is proposed for Fade transition detection.

Keywords: Abrupt transition,Automatic Thresold,Gradual transition,Shot boundary detection, χ 2 histogram

Pages: 391 - 395 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

68. A SURVEY OF MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS

Authors: SUMIT CHHABRA , MINI SINGH AHUJA

Abstract: Biometric technologies are used to analyse human characteristics for security purposes. The most common physical biometrics patterns analyzed for security purposes are the fingerprint, hand, eye, face and voice. The advantages of using biometrics to verify a person’s identity over using passwords or token have been broadly presented in many research papers. However recent research has revealed that biometric technologies can be defeated with low –tech and cheap materials. This provides a new cha

Keywords: multiple, biometrics ,we can minimize the system error rate

Pages: 396 - 399 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

69. FREQUENCY DOWN CONVERSION USING MIXER AND ITS SIMULATION

Authors: JAYMIN BHALANI , MANTHAN S. MANAVADARIA

Abstract: Everywhere in daily life, there are frequencies of sound and electromagnetic waves, constantly changing and creating the features of the visible and audible world familiar to everyone. The electromagnetic spectrum has wide number of frequency range. Among them only visible range is easily seen by human eyes. But there is a wide frequency range that cannot be seen by human eyes but still they have much important in their various application. To measure the frequency of such invisible spectrum is

Keywords: Mixer, Filterbank, Detector, GENESYS

Pages: 400 - 404 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

70. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS USED IN MANET

Authors: AKASH BHARDWAJ , ARUN RANA , PRAVEEN KUMAR

Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers connected wirelessly. MANET may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. Many routing protocols have been developed for MANETs over the past few years. This paper compares three specific MANET routing protocols which are Ad-hoc Ondemand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET On- demand routing protocol (DYMO)

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSR, DYMO

Pages: 405 - 408 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

71. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR A SCHEMA LANGUAGE FOR JAVASCRIPT OBJECT NOTATION

Authors: MUNAWWAR FIROZ , S. JEYLATHA

Abstract: This paper deals with a schema format for JavaScript Object Notation based on the current IETF JavaScript object notation schema specification. JavaScript object notation is a text-based data interchange format. The data transferred between two users or modules may have an application specific structure. The aim of this paper is to help application developers ease their task of data validation, documentation and to provide other structural information about data, by defining the structure of the

Keywords: JavaScript Object Notation, JSON, Text-based data interchange, JSON Schema

Pages: 414 - 419 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

72. A SURVEY OF METRICS FOR ASSESSING THE NAVIGATIONAL QUALITY OF A WEBSITE BASED ON THE STRUCTURE OF WEBSITE

Authors: MINI SINGH AHUJA , PRITIKA MEHRA , SUMIT CHABBRA

Abstract: The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known as the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them by using hyperlinks. Navigation is the process through which the users can achieve their purposes in using Web site, such as to find the information that they need or to complete the transactions that they want to do. A navigab

Keywords: naviagtion, website structural complexity , lostness or disorientation, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), hypertext, hyperlink.

Pages: 420 - 426 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

73. A NEW APPROACH FOR CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION OF SUSPICIOUS LESIONS IN MAMMOGRAMS BASED ON ADAPTIVE THRESHOLDING

Authors: SAURABH SHARMA , ASHISH OBEROI

Abstract: Breast cancer has become one of the most dangerous carcinomas for middle-aged and older women in all over the world recently [2]. Early detection of breast cancer increases the survival rate and increases the treatment options. Mammography is the most reliable detection method used in the clinic, and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) could assist the radiologists in reading the mammograms [4]. In this paper, a new algorithm based on adaptive thresholding for classification and detection of suspicio

Keywords: breast cancer, mammograms, masses, lesions, thresholding.

Pages: 427 - 431 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

74. FRACTAL ANTENNAS: SHRINKING THE SIZE OF ANTENNA

Authors: ASHISH MATHUR , GEETIKA MATHUR , RANJANA TRIVEDI , SHILPA CHOUDHARY

Abstract: This paper will explain the theories and techniques for shrinking the size of an antenna through the use of fractals. Fractal antennas can obtain radiation pattern and input impedance similar to a longer antenna, yet take less area due to the many contours of the shape. Fractal antennas are a fairly new research area and are probable to have a promising future in many applications.

Keywords: Techniques, Fractal, Longer Antenna, Contours, Applications, Minkowski Loop

Pages: 432 - 434 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

75. ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND GRADIENT FOR CAPACITOR PLACEMENT IN ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

Authors: BHARAT SOLANKI , HEENA DAVE , RAVIN SARDHARA

Abstract: The optimal capacitor placement problem involves determination of the location, number, type and sizes of capacitor to be placed in a distribution system in the most efficient manner. The main objective of optimal capacitor allocation is to reduce the peak power losses of the system while striving to minimize the cost of the capacitors in the system. This paper describes an approach to minimize the active losses in electrical distribution systems with the help of the optimal capacitor bank place

Keywords: load flow, ACO metaheuristic, Gradient, Capacitor Placement

Pages: 435 - 439 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

76. OPTIMIZATION OF STATE TRANSITIONS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

Authors: PRATEEK GUPTA , SIDDHARTHA CHAUHAN , SUMIT KUMAR

Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), data aggregation techniques are used to collect the data sample at sink through the cluster head, generated by sensor nodes. Data aggregation for WSNs must address to the issues of WSNs like limited energy in battery powered sensor, and fast and efficient query response which is essential to network performance and maintenance. In this paper, we propose an Energy Efficient Activity scheduling algorithm which is reduces the state transition of cluster head. Dur

Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSNs), data aggregation techniques are used

Pages: 440 - 446 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

77. SMS BANKING IN E-GOVERNANCE

Authors: POOJA AGRAWAL

Abstract: According to the Euronet mobile Banking Guide, there are currently close to 400 Mobile Operators in over 133 countries who are signing up 4 to 6 new customers every second. This implies that more people are going mobile like never before. The novel method presented in this paper is an Interactive SMS Banking Agent that is incrementally scalable for banking operations. Hence, a mobile banking solution called SMS Banking that allows people to bank with their mobile phones is presented in this pape

Keywords: Banking services, Agent, SMS, Network, and GSM.

Pages: 447 - 451 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

78. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS AND DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER USING NUCLEAR PLEOMORPHISAM

Authors: APARNA JOSHI , SAYALI GADRE

Abstract: IN traditional cancer diagnosis, pathologists examine biopsies to make diagnostic assessments largely based on cell morphology and tissue distribution. However, this is subjective and often leads to considerable variability. On the other hand, computational diagnostic tools enable objective judgments by making use of quantitative measures. This paper presents steps in autoamted cancer diagnosis based on histomorphometry.As well as GUI related to the diagnosis. The GUI is made in Matlab with auto

Keywords: Histopathology , breastCancer , segmentation , kmeans clustring , image analysis

Pages: 452 - 456 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

79. IMAGE COMPRESSION USING SET OF SELECTED BIT PLANES USING ADAPTIVE QUANTIZATION CODING

Authors: MANU GUPTA , ROHIT ANAND

Abstract: In this paper , a new method for image compression based on adaptive quantization using set of selected bit planes is being proposed .This technique combines adaptive quantization with an additional unit, with the aim of checking the intensity variation of each image block, and selects bit planes on basis of their intensity variations as compared to predefined threshold. Block truncation method and adaptive quantization coding method for image compression are also explained.

Keywords: Block truncation coding (BTC), Color image compression, Adaptive quantization coding (AQC), bit planes.MANU GUPTA

Pages: 457 - 461 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

80. INTERDEPENDENT QUEUEING MODEL WITH FIXED SIZE SERVICE

Authors: D. SIVA RAMA KRISHNA , T.S.R.MURTHY

Abstract: In this paper we extend the single server interdependent queuing models to bulk service queueing models. Here we consider the costumers/units served a batch of k at a time and if not, the server waits until such time to start. In this model various system characteristics like average queue length, variability of the system size are obtained.

Keywords: Queuing system, service process, arrival process, bulk service, interdependence, joint probability, marginal probabilities.

Pages: 462 - 470 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

81. INTERDEPENDENT QUEUEING MODEL WITH FIXED SIZE SERVICE

Authors: D. SIVA RAMA KRISHNA , T.S.R.MURTHY

Abstract: In this paper we extend the single server interdependent queuing models to bulk service queueing models. Here we consider the costumers/units served a batch of k at a time and if not, the server waits until such time to start. In this model various system characteristics like average queue length, variability of the system size are obtained.

Keywords: Queuing system, service process, arrival process, bulk service, interdependence, joint probability, marginal probabilities.

Pages: 462 - 470 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

82. A CASE BASED STUDY ON DECISION TREE INDUCTION WITH AVL-TREE

Authors: SITA KUMARI KOTHA , SUHASINI SODAGUDI

Abstract: Data Mining is one of the eminent research fields to find interesting trends or patterns in large datasets. In order to work with the numeric or categorical data, the classification technique suits well for analyzing and processing for wider variety of large databases. Efficiency and scalability are fundamental issues concerning data mining in large databases. This paper describes the stability and quality of quantifiable elements among the given datasets and presented the representations of AVL

Keywords: Classification, Decision tree induction, Attribute Oriented Induction, AVL tree

Pages: 471 - 476 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

83. COMPUTER BASED AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

Authors: AVADHUT APTE

Abstract: People use cryptography to send secret messages to one another without a third party overseeing the message. Steganography is a type of cryptography in which the secret message is hidden in another message. In this paper, a method of hiding the speech signal inside a music file using LSB coding is proposed. The speech signal can be hidden inside music file by replacing the LSBs of the samples of music file by speech signal bits. At the receiver’s end, speech signal can be heard only when a pre-d

Keywords: Steganography, Stego signal, Embedding, Carrier, Data hiding.

Pages: 477 - 479 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

84. THE CROME BASED COMPUTING OF REDUNDANT DATA CUBES

Authors: C.SHOBA BINDU , K.DHANASREE

Abstract: Very often computation of multiple group -bys are done by OLAP applications. Many of the OLAP applications use cube operator. The cube operator requires computing group-bys on all possible combinations of list of attributes. If multiple copies of the same data are stored at different data bases then the OLAP applications evaluate same data cubes may number of times. This increases the cost of evaluation and performance time. Here we present a CROME based method of computing the data cubes.

Keywords: olap,cube,lattice,crome

Pages: 480 - 483 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

85. HIGH THROUGHPUT-LESS AREA EFFICIENT FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF BLOCK CIPHER AES ALGORITHM

Authors: D.MAHESH KUMAR , M.SIRIN KUMARI , Y.RAMA DEVI

Abstract: This paper addresses design, hardware implementation and performance testing of AES algorithm. An optimized code for the Rijndael algorithm with 128-bit keys has been developed. The area and throughput are carefully trading off to make it suitable for wireless military communication and mobile telephony where emphasis is on the speed as well as on area of implementation. Keywords: Cryptography, Rijndael, Encryption,Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), pipelining,security, very-large-scale integra

Keywords: Cryptography, Rijndael, Encryption,Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), pipelining,security, very-large-scale integration (VLSI), VHDL.

Pages: 484 - 489 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

86. CAPACITY ANALYSIS OF MIMO SYSTEMS (USING WATER FILLING ALGORITHM

Authors: BHADRU AMGOTHU , MAHESH KUSUMA , MOHAN AMGOTHU

Abstract: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Systems are used in wireless communication for enhancement of capacity. The main aim of this paper is to carry out investigations of MIMO system capacity and to observe the performance of MIMO system by using Waterfilling Algorithm. In which Diversity gain and spatial multiplexing gain are the two main advantages of MIMO systems that are used to study the effect of increase in bit rate with increasing the number of transmitter and receiver antennas. These ad

Keywords: MIMO, Watwerfilling, SVD

Pages: 490 - 496 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

87. DESIGN OF FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR TRANSIENT STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF HYBRID ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEM

Authors: H. S. DALVI , N. V. RATHI

Abstract: This paper deals with soft logic rather than hard logic. Matlab based hybrid model of wind solar and thermal energy generation is developed. Fuzzy logic based controller takes decision As how much non conventional power can be injecting to the conventional system during fault condition so that the rotor angle variation limits and transient stability of system is improved .Large interconnected power system events need careful co-ordination of logical events for complex or catastrophic situations

Keywords: Wind, Solar, Thermal, Fuzzy controller, Transient Stability, Matlab/Simulink

Pages: 497 - 500 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

88. WEB LOGS CONVERSION TO IMPROVE THE ANALYSIS OF WEB USAGE DATA FOR WEB USAGE MINING IN E-LEARNING

Authors: ANUP NANDY , MANEET KAUR

Abstract: This paper explicitly describes the underlying concept of web usage mining in accordance with the inherent enhancement of web usage mining by applying multi dimensional schema. The improvement policy is to be carried out by the analysis of the Web usage data and performing the web usage mining. It is to be done by taking the flat files as an input and convert those flat log files into multidimensional data. Those data are to be used in analysis tools which are commonly known as Online Analytical

Keywords: web usage mining, web logs, e-learning, OLAP, data mining, pentaho

Pages: 501 - 506 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

89. A NEW ALGORITHM TO CONVERT DECIMAL NUMBER INTO TBNS

Authors: SUBHASHIS MAITRA , PIYALI BISWAS

Abstract: Computational complexities arise to convert any decimal number to DBNS are the most important issues to design an algorithm further for the same. Here we have introduced a new algorithm that converts any decimal number to TBNS in a simpler way. Advantages of TBNS over DBNS have been discussed. Although the material presented in this article is mainly theoretical, the proposed algorithm could lead to very efficient implementation for digital signal processing application.

Keywords: DBNS, TBNS[5], DSP[3], OSTROWSKI’S NUMBER SYSTEM[4].

Pages: 507 - 511 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

90. TEST CASES REDUCTION TECHNIQUE CONSIDERING THE TIME AND COST AS EVALUATION STANDARDS

Authors: RAJNI SEHGAL , ROOPALI SALWAN

Abstract: Main aim of test cases reduction is to achieve the same reliability and same assurance in lesser number of test cases, we all know that testing walks hand in hand with development .We all know ” WHY WE CREATE TEST CASES?”. keep a track on whether the end product is achieved as per the requirements ,our aim is full filled ,the model which was formed theoretically on paper matches the actual end product and is performing the task as intended by SRS(software requirement specification). Initially te

Keywords: Testing, Test cases ,Test suite, test cases reduction, manual testing, automated testing , product under test

Pages: 512 - 516 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

91. SNR COMPUTATION OF VARIOUS SPATIAL AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN TRANSFORMATION

Authors: APNEET KAUR , RUCHI KAWATRA , SAPNA ARORA

Abstract: Embodiments of this paper includes the study of steganography and digital watermarking as a technique of hiding images. Various algorithms on spatial and frequency domain transformation have been studied and their Signal-to-Noise Ratio has been computed. The processor complexity has also been checked to find out which algorithm can efficiently work on robust environment. The original image is decomposed in DWT domain in to three hierarchical levels and watermarks it with a logo image. The watermark is added to the DWT image according to a certain threshold. The watermark can be extracted at lower resolution without computational complexity. Wavelets play an important role in the upcoming compression standards such as JPEG2000. Experimentally it has been shown that a watermark signal can be embedded in high-pass wavelet coefficients without any impact on the image visual fidelity. Many transformations techniques are there but only a few have been studied and a simple comparison

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Discrete Cosine Transformation, Fast Fourier Transformation, Information hiding.

Pages: 517 - 521 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

92. AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE RECOGNITION (ANPR) SYSTEM FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE (SVM)

Authors: A. K. GULVE , NAGRAJ P. KAMBLE , SHRIRAM KISHANRAO WAGHMARE , VIKAS N.NIRGUDE

Abstract: Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System automatically recognize the number plate of the vehicle. In this paper proposed approach is present. It has considered the Indian number plates, where rear follows the number plate standards. This system consist of few algorithm like “Feature based number plate Localization” for locating the number plate, “Image Scissoring” algorithm for character segmentation and proposed algorithm for character recognition using Support Vector Machine (SVM).System can recognize single or double line number plate.

Keywords: Feature based number plate Localization, Image Scissoring, character reorganization using SVM.

Pages: 527 - 531 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

93. PAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WITH INTERMITTENT BOLUSES AND MONITORING OF BIO-SIGNALS

Authors: ATUL CHITALE , DIPALI RAMDASI , VIDYA HARDARE

Abstract: The objective is to design a microcontroller based pain management system which reduces the pain of the patients by giving analgesics epidurally, monitors the given parameters and activates alarms in case it identifies any deviation along with the type of alarm on the display. The epidural infusion involves injection of drugs through a catheter placed into the epidural space. This system allows the user to enter analgesia rate, time duration between two boluses, bolus volume and drug name through keypad. Although it provides continuous and intermittent type of infusion, intermittent bolus method is more effective than continuous infusion method. The basic requirement is to infuse analgesic drug of a selectable dosage in ml, after a fixed time gap in minutes and at a programmed analgesia rate of (say) 299 ml/ hr entered by the user, till the system is reset or an alarm condition gets activated. The mechanical assembly consists of peristaltic mechanism which is driven by a stepper motor.

Keywords: epidural infusion, catheter, analgesia rate, intermittent bolus method, peristaltic mechanism, painless labour, continuous, intermittent type of infusion.

Pages: 532 - 536 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

94. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF DC MOTOR BASED ON MICROCONTROLLER AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF HEAT SINK

Authors: JAYTRILOK CHOUDHARY , SANJAY CHOUDHARY , VASUDEV DEHALWAR

Abstract: The electric drive systems used in industrial applications are increasingly required to meet the higher performance and reliability requirements. The DC motor is an attractive piece of equipment in many industrial applications requiring variable speed, good speed regulation; frequent starting, braking and reversing. Microcontrollers provide a suitable means of meeting these needs. In this Project work, implementation of microcontroller, PIC16F877A for of speed control of DC motor fed by a DC chopper is carried out. The chopper is driven by a high frequency PWM signals. Controlling the PWM duty cycle is equivalent to controlling, the motor terminal voltage which in turn adjusts directly the motor speed. Microcontroller based closed loop control system for a DC motor which gives the output as speed at different conditions, system provides over current protection of DC Motor and temperature controlled system.

Keywords: DC motor drives, Microcontroller, Speed control, Temperature control

Pages: 537 - 539 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

95. A RE-RANKING STRATEGY FOR WEB SEARCH PERSONALIZATION

Authors: JAYTRILOK CHOUDHARY , SANJAY CHOUDHARY , VASUDEV DEHALWAR

Abstract: Work of relevant information retrieval from search engines is a tedious task in current scenario as there is huge amount of information present on the web. Web Search personalization is the process to filter search results to a particular user based on user’s interest and preferences. The judgment to make the search results relevant depends on user and the context of search. So, to judge the user and search context we build a user profile that will be very helpful in obtaining most relevant results .Also we maintain Query log that will help us to solve the ambiguity problem with the queries. Ambiguity refers to the missing weights of certain words in the user profile. In this paper we present an effective filtering strategy that compensates for the ambiguity in a user’s profile, by applying reranking algorithm. After evaluation the results are effective and show an improvement in precision over approaches that use only a user’s profile.

Keywords: Personalization, Query disambiguation, Reranking.

Pages: 540 - 543 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

96. AN ANALYSIS OF ISSUES AND THEIR COUNTERMEASURES PREVAILING IN SEMANTIC WEB

Authors: KULDEEP , VIJAY RANA

Abstract: The generation of information on the web is increasing exponentially. The main need of web users is to access subject relevant and well-defined meaningful information. Semantic Web will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages, creating an environment where software agents roaming from page to page can readily carry out sophisticated tasks for users [2]. Semantic web is an extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. It is evident that, understanding level of a machine and human beings are different. The traditional web matches word by word and provides the result. But semantic web (SW) understands the meaning of each word, analyzes domain and defines the relationship among different words.

Keywords: Semantic web, RDF, Ontology

Pages: 550 - 556 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

97. EVENT BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS (WSNS)

Authors: PRATEEK GUPTA , SUMIT KUMAR , SIDDHARTHA CHAUHAN

Abstract: Sensor nodes that are deployed in the wireless sensor field are equipped with limited energy power. The most important problem in the wireless sensor network is to develop the energy efficient, reliable and robust routing protocol. To achieve these targets, we have proposed a new Event-based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (EBEERP). EBEERP is also concerned to the reliable data dissemination in the wireless sensor network. In this protocol, we have used the Tier based architecture for data dissemination among the sensor nodes. We have simulated the results of our protocol with LEACH and PEGASIS and observed that it is 7.5 times better than LEACH and 2 times better than PEGASIS.

Keywords: Event driven, DGD node, Gateway node, DTC range, WSN.

Pages: 582 - 586 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

98. MICROARRAY GENE EXPRESSION DATA CLUSTERING USING PSO BASED K-MEANS ALGORITHM

Authors: ANIRBAN MUKHOPADHYAY

Abstract: This paper describes the clustering analysis of microarray gene expression data. Microarray basically consists of large number of gene sequences under multiple conditions. This microarray technology has made it possible to concurrently monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes and across collection of related samples. The most important area of microarray technology is the data clustering analysis. Cluster analysis refers to partitioning a given data set into groups based on specified features so that the data points within a group are more similar to each other than the points in different groups. Many conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, FCM, hierarchical techniques are used for gene expression data clustering. But PSO based K-means gives better accuracy than these existing algorithms. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based K-means clustering algorithm has been proposed for clustering microarray gene expression data.

Keywords: Clustering, K-means, PSO, Microarray Gene Expression data.

Pages: 587 - 591 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

99. PARAMETERS EFFECTING MOBILE NUMBER PORTABILITY AND FUZZY LOGIC BASED MNP DECISION

Authors: AJAY MALIK , SUNITA MALIK , VIJAY PAL SINGH

Abstract: Mobile number portability (MNP) means that a subscriber of one telecommunication operator is able to keep his telephone number unchanged when switching to another operator. As one of the development trends of the international telecommunication industry, number portability has been introduced in many countries around the world and has played an important role in stimulating the competition and development of telecommunication market. This paper describes various parameter that effect subscribers or parameter on which MNP depends and MNP decision using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: MNP, Fuzzy Logic, Parameters

Pages: 592 - 596 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

100. CLOUD IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND WHAT TO COMPUTE ON CLOUD

Authors: PARDEEP SHARMA , SUMEET KAUR

Abstract: the development of worldwide networks, open systems and new technology trends a new type of computing where computational power is provided similar to utilities like water, gas or electricity. Cloud computing refers to the concept of grid computing, utility computing and virtualization. It elevates knowledge management to newer heights by providing huge data storage and computational power with feature of elasticity and scalability. It has a lot of advantages but still this field in its infancy as far as implementation and usage are concerned. The lack of security in cloud represents an obstacle for most enterprises for moving into the cloud. The purpose of this paper is to address the challenges and threats in deployment models and discuss obstacles in implementation of cloud computing. So researcher need to work at this high developing paradigm’s highlighted areas.

Keywords: Datacenters, Data Privacy, Hypervisor, Security, Utility Computing and Virtualization.

Pages: 597 - 602 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

101. EFFECT OF CWND AND RTO IN THE PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS NETWORKS

Authors: ABHI SHAH , DAIVIK BHATT , DIPEN KHATRI

Abstract: In this paper we describe a ns based simulation analysis of TCP performance over a hybrid network with first link as a wireless link. The latter choice is for understanding performance issues with better clarity. The effect of wireless errors on different TCP parameters resulted into end to end performance degradation of TCP is investigated. Based on the analysis of the basic MAC loss recovery mechanism, we are able to show impact of delay introduced by MAC loss recovery over the performance of TCP. With increased MAC loss recovery duration TCP is unable to conceive maximum of available bandwidth over a network. In addition, it also describe that adaption in CWND will improve the performance of wireless networks. All above simulation results clearly show a) scope for improving MAC loss recovery and b) requirement of tuning between TCP and MAC loss recovery, particularly for retransmission mechanism.

Keywords: ACKs; Retransmission Timeout; Medium Access Control; Round Trip Time; Distributed Coordination Function.

Pages: 603 - 607 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

102. EFFECT OF CWND AND RTO IN THE PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS NETWORKS

Authors: ABHI SHAH , DAIVIK BHATT , DIPEN KHATRI

Abstract: In this paper we describe a ns based simulation analysis of TCP performance over a hybrid network with first link as a wireless link. The latter choice is for understanding performance issues with better clarity. The effect of wireless errors on different TCP parameters resulted into end to end performance degradation of TCP is investigated. Based on the analysis of the basic MAC loss recovery mechanism, we are able to show impact of delay introduced by MAC loss recovery over the performance of TCP. With increased MAC loss recovery duration TCP is unable to conceive maximum of available bandwidth over a network. In addition, it also describe that adaption in CWND will improve the performance of wireless networks. All above simulation results clearly show a) scope for improving MAC loss recovery and b) requirement of tuning between TCP and MAC loss recovery, particularly for retransmission mechanism.

Keywords: ACKs; Retransmission Timeout; Medium Access Control; Round Trip Time; Distributed Coordination Function.

Pages: 603 - 607 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

103. A SURVEY ON TRUSTED AGENT-BASED ON-DEMAND ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MANET

Authors: PREETI BHATI , RINKI CHAUHAN

Abstract: Ad-hoc wireless networks are selforganising, infrastructure less networks characterized by dynamic topology, limited channel bandwidth and limited battery power at the nodes. The nodes communicate with each other through radio links in multihop specified routing protocols. The concept of agent is introduced in MANET to reduce the load on node .The routing performance in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) relies on the cooperation of the individual nodes that constitute the network. The existence of misbehaving nodes may paralyze the routing operation in MANET. To overcome this behavior, the trustworthiness of the network nodes should be considered in the route selection process combined with the hop count. The trustworthiness is achieved by measuring the trust value for each node in the network. In this paper we have considered trusted agent based routing mechanism in two reactive protocols and presented the analysis of trusted agent in the extensions of Adhoc on Demand Distance

Keywords: MANET, multipath routing protocol, AODV, DSR, agents, trustworthiness.

Pages: 608 - 611 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

104. THE ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE OF CLOUD COMPUTING

Authors: JITENDRA KUMAR , SANDEEP KUMAR , VERNON

Abstract: Cloud computing is an innovative, emerging and a novel phenomenon that paves the way for provisioning of infinitely scalable, re-usable, multipurpose, flexible, cost-saving, efficient and customizable on-demand information technology services and products. The promise of cloud computing is to deliver all the functionality of existing information technology services (and in fact enable new functionalities that are hitherto infeasible) even as it dramatically reduces the upfront costs of computing that deter many organizations from deploying many cutting-edge IT services . All such promise has led to lofty expectations — Gartner Research expects cloud computing to be a $150 billion business by 2014, and according to AMI partners, small and medium businesses are expected to spend over $100 billion on cloud computing by 2014. One recent survey of six corporate data centers found that most of the servers were using just 10–30% of their available computing power.

Keywords: Cloud computing, Virtualization, Software as a service, Platform as a service, Infrastructure as a service.

Pages: 612 - 619 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

105. SIMULATED ANNEALING ALGORITHM FOR COMBINED ECONOMIC AND EMISSION DISPATCH

Authors: B.K.PANIGRAHI , HARI MOHAN DUBEY , MANJAREE PANDIT

Abstract: Image segmentation is one of the most important steps in image analysis and has been a key problem in computer vision. The main aim of this process is to separate an image to several regions or parts which correlate strongly the interested objects. Snakes, or active contours, have been widely used to locate boundaries of image segmentation and computer vision. Problem associated with the existence of the local minima in the active contour energy function makes snakes have poor convergence in segmentation process; therefore, the poor convergence has limited applications. In this work, a fast minimization of snake model is used for an MRI knee image segmentation. This method provides a satisfied result. As a result, it is a good candidate for MRI image segmentation approach. In other words an improper initial contour can give inaccurate result.

Keywords: Economic dispatch; Emission dispatch; Combined economic and emission dispatch; Mathematical modeling

Pages: 631 - 636 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

106. ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED FUZZY FILTERS FOR IMAGE DENOISING

Authors: AMANPREET KAUR , NIDHI KHARB

Abstract: Image denoising algorithms may be the oldest in image processing. A first pre-processing step in analyzing such datasets is denoising, that is, estimating the unknown signal of interest from the available noisy data. There are several different approaches to denoise images. To remove noise several techniques and image denoising filters are used. This paper shows a comparative study and analysis of image denoising techniques relying on fuzzy filters. First is the fuzzy impulse noise detection and reduction method (FIDRM) and second is noise adaptive fuzzy switching median filter for salt and pepper noise reduction (NAFSM). The comparative analysis shows that the NAFSM filter is better then the FIDRM filter in terms of execution time, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and mean square error (MSE).

Keywords: Fuzzy reasoning, salt and pepper noise, noise histogram, noise reduction

Pages: 637 - 640 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

107. IMPLEMENTING VIDEO DATA COMPRESSION ALONG WITH NETWORK CODING IN VIDEO MULTICAST

Authors: ANKUSH KAPOOR , GARIMA BHARTI , HARSH MAGOTRA , NITIN RAKESH

Abstract: This paper presents a technical review to real time Video Multicast. In this paper Video Multicast technique is being described and to improve the quality and efficiency using network coding and video data compression. Video data compression is concerned with reducing the amount of data required to reproduce a digital video. It is a key component in facilitating the widespread use of digital video, which is currently prevented by the mismatch between the huge storage and transmission bandwidth requirements of video and the limited capacity of existing computer systems and communications networks. In this paper we provide measure to remove the problem of video multicast in lossy networks using data compression, network coding and multiple description codes. The rate allocation for multiple descriptions can be optimized at the source to generate a scalable video bit stream such that the expected PSNR of the video at the receivers is maximized.

Keywords: coding, data compression, MD-FEC

Pages: 641 - 644 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

108. FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS & LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS METHOD SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH 3D MORPHABLE MODEL

Authors: A. K. GULVE , VIKAS N.NIRGUDE , S.K.WAGHMARE

Abstract: This paper proposes a face recognition technique that effectively combines principle components analysis (PCA) and Fisherface algorithm (LDA). PCA use as dimension reduction and Fisherface algorithm as a class specific method is robust about variations such as lighting and different angle Condition. We use 3D morphable model to convert 2D image into 3D image & we can derive multiple image by different lighting and can be rotated to generate multiple images in different poses, the PCA method reduces dimensionality& LDA for the classification. In comparison with a conventional method the proposed approach could obtain satisfactory results in the perspectives of recognition rates and speeds.

Keywords: fisherface,PCA,LDA,training,algorithm,image ,processing system,real time,morphable,eignface

Pages: 645 - 649 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

109. TOPOLOGY CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Authors: MONIKA BATHLA , NITIN SHARMA

Abstract: The topology control is a vital process to maximize the network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we present a distributed topology algorithm with transmission power adjustment based on optimal no. of neighbours to raise the network energy- efficiency and the network throughput and to cope with the trade-off between the energy balance and energy efficiency, a non-linear optimization problem is formulated to find the optimal route nodes and their various transmission ranges. In the algorithm, every node can adjust its transmission power level and calculate its optimal transmission power according to the optimal number of neighbours, and a virtual clustering scheme is presented which is based on optimal transmission power for network topology control, where the network connectivity is also guaranteed. This scheme can achieve energy consumption balance and high efficiency at the same time.

Keywords: Topology, Control, Optimal, Number of Neighbours, Power Control, Wireless ,Sensor Networks, variable transmission range, energy-balanced.

Pages: 654 - 657 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

110. COMPARISON BETWEEN PI &FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

Authors: PRETTY NEELAM TOPNO , SUNITA CHAUHAN

Abstract: This paper compares the response of a induction machine with scalar speed PI controls and with Fuzzy logic controls. Fuzzy Logic Control is a part of intelligent control which contain hard and soft computing. The method uses a new linguistic rule table to adjust the motor control speed, and this FLC can achieve a good system performance of the IM scalar drive, and it is possible to implement a PI fuzzy logic controller instead the traditional PI controller. Hence, improvement can be achieved by the induction machine changing controls PI into Fuzzy.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, PI controller, induction motor.

Pages: 658 - 661 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

111. DIRECTIONAL HEXAGON-BASED BLOCK SEARCH ALGORITH

Authors: MUKESH ANGRAKH , AKASH AAMBULKAR , SHAILESH WANKHEDE , SUJIT KAUTKAR , VIDYA N. MORE

Abstract: Many fast block matching algorithms have been proposed to reduce computational complexity in motion estimation process. Previously developed hexagonal algorithms focus on improvement of either low resolution coarse search or fineresolution inner search. In this paper, proposed algorithm named Directional Hexagon-based Block Search (DHEXBS) improves both coarse and inner search. The proposed algorithm reduces the number of search points by exploiting the distortion information in the neighboring search points. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm substantially outperforms HEXBS in terms of number of search points while maintaining the Peak Signal-to- Noise ratio. (PSNR)

Keywords: Motion estimation, Block matching algorithm, Hexagon-based block search.

Pages: 662 - 665 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

112. SOFTWARE METRICS FROM META DEFINITION LANGUAGE (MDL)

Authors: NAKUL SHARMA , SHANTANU PATHAK

Abstract: Software metrics is a technique for assessing the software in qualitative and quantitative terms. This paper deals with using Meta Definition Language (MDL) to get useful software metrics. MDL is generated by Rational Rose software of IBM. In this paper we propose to analyse and present a new technique of getting metrics from this mdl format. The future research directions are also presented herein.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Software metrics, UML, Meta Definition Language (MDL)

Pages: 666 - 668 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

113. AUTO-FOCUSING FOR MOBILE PHONE AND WEB CAMERA

Authors: N.N.KASAT , P.N. BAHETI

Abstract: Lens defocus causes image blurring. Restoring these kinds of images is an interesting research field. Current auto focus solutions used in commercial cameras are design to ensure that captured images are in focus by adjusting the lens position .A motor is used to move the position of camera lens along the optical axis to take multiple pictures. Disadvantages of auto focus solution are that it requires focal length changing lens and accurate engine to move the lens with a particular step size. Moreover it has fundamental limitations that when the scene contains multiple objects with largely varying depths , a single image cannot capture all the objects in focus simultaneously We present a novel method for virtual focus and object depth estimation from defocused video captured by a moving camera. Virtual Focusing stands for the technique of providing an image processing solution to recover focused image sequences from videos taken by an out-of-focus camera with fixed physical parameters.

Keywords: Focusing, image restoration

Pages: 669 - 672 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

114. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF REED SOLOMON ENCODER

Authors: CHANCHAL GHADSE

Abstract: Reed Solomon codes are widely used to identify and correct data errors in transmission and storage system. RS is a block forward error correction capable of correcting multiple errors. This code is widely used in wireless and mobile communication units. This paper present a design of (7, 3) Reed Solomon encoder using VHSIC hardware description language.

Keywords: encoder, Reed Solomon codes, VHDL.

Pages: 673 - 675 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

115. TOPOLOGY COMPARISION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK MAC PROTOCOL

Authors: APEKSHA MURKUTE , ASHISH JIRAPURE

Abstract: A Wireless Sensor Network comprises of number of nodes distributed over an area to collect information. The sensor nodes communicate among themselves through the wireless channel and forward the collected data to its one-hop distant neighboring node. These nodes are normally battery operated. But as these nodes are placed in such conditions that charging or replacing battery of these nodes are nearly impossible, energy consumption becomes a major factor. Here we are creating a network once with Sensor-MAC (SMAC) and again with Sensor- MAC with sleep schedule. After simulating these networks in different topologies network of SMAC-L is found to give better results in life time and energy consumption when compared to network of SMAC.

Keywords: Global Sleep Schedule, Medium Access Control Protocol, Sensor-MAC (SMAC), Sensor-MAC with sleep schedule (SMAC-L). Wireless Sensor Network

Pages: 685 - 688 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

116. A STUDY AND COMPARISON OF LOW POWER CMOS VOLTAGE REFERENCE

Authors: MANOJ KUMAR , ASHOK KUMAR , SANDEEP K. ARYA

Abstract: This paper presents a study and comparison between CMOS low power voltage reference in terms of voltage independent over the temperature .The reference voltage circuits are designed & simulated in SPICE with 0.35-μm technology with supply voltage (VDD) of 2.5 V & 1.8 V respectively. The simulated results show that the circuits generate an average reference voltage of 246.66 mV & 817.0 mV respectively and there is only small variation of ±2 mV & ±0.2 mV from the temperature range of -40 °C to 120 °C. The circuits consume approximately 10.49 μW & 69.8 μW of power dissipation from a supply voltage of 2.5 V & 1.8- V respectively.

Keywords: Study, Comparison of Low Power CMOS Voltage Reference

Pages: 689 - 692 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

117. WEB LOG MINING: AN ENHANCEMENT TO SERVER PERFORMANCE AND SIGHT NAVIGATION

Authors: HEENA GOYAL , N.N.DAS , NIDHI , SHILPAYADAV

Abstract: The aim of discovering frequent patterns in Web log data is to obtain information about the navigational behavior of the users. Web Server register a log entry for every single access they get. A huge number of accesses are registered and collected in an ever growing web log. In this paper, we study how an efficient web log mining contributes to enhance server performance, improve web site navigation and system design of web applications.

Keywords: User session, Pattern Discovery and Data Location.

Pages: 693 - 696 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

118. CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

Authors: BHAGYASHRI KUMBHARE , DIPAK JHA , PALLAVI DONGRE , PARITOSH SARDARE , SUJATA S. KHOBRAGADE

Abstract: \"SECURITY\"in this contemporary scenarios has become a more sensible issue either it may be in the ―REAL WORLD‖ or in the ―CYBER WORLD‖. In the real world as opposed to the cyber world an attack is often preceded by information gathering. Movie gangsters ―case the joint‖; soldiers ―scout the area‖. This is also true in the cyber world. Here the ―bad guys‖ are referred to as intruders, eavesdroppers, hackers, hijackers, etc. Today the illicit activities of the hackers are growing by leaps and bounds, viz. ., ―THE RECENT ATTACK ON THE DNS SERVERS HAS CAUSED A LOT OF HULLABALOO ALL OVER THE WORLD‖. However, fortunately, the antagonists reacted promptly and resurrected the Internet world from the brink of prostration. Since the inception of conglomerating Computers with Networks the consequence of which shrunk the communication world, hitherto, umpteen ilk of security breaches took their origin. Tersely quoting some security ditherers – Eavesdropping, Hacking, Hijacking, Mapping, Packet

Keywords: Secrecy, Authentication, Non Repudiation and integrity control.

Pages: 679 - 700 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

119. HIERARCHICAL K-MEANS ALGORITHM(HK-MEANS) WITH AUTOMATICALLY DETECTED INITIAL CENTROIDS

Authors: RUPA G. MEHTA , VAISHALI R. PATEL

Abstract: Unsupervised learning is a technique to organize the data into meaningful way having similarity. Cluster analysis is the study of clustering techniques and algorithms which are helpful to discover important patterns from fundamental data without knowledge of category label for further analysis. k-Means algorithm is one of the most popular clustering algorithm among all partition based clustering algorithm to partition a dataset into meaningful patterns. k-Means algorithm suffers from the problem of specifying the number of clusters in advance and often converges to local minima and therefore resulted clusters are heavily dependent on initial centroids. Various methods have been proposed for automatic detection of initial centroids to improve the performance and efficiency of k-Means algorithm. This paper presents an overview of clustering, clustering techniques and algorithms, addressing problems of k-Means algorithm, comparison of different methods for automatic detection of initial.

Keywords: Clustering, Initial Centroids, k-Means Preprocessing, Outlier

Pages: 701 - 705 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

120. COMPARISON OF K-MEANS AND ADAPTIVE K-MEANS USING MATLAB SIMULATION

Authors: PANKAJ AGRAWAL , SACHIN M. JAMBHULKAR

Abstract: Image Segmentation based on K-means algorithm is presented in GUI (Graphical User Interface). The K-means algorithm and adaptive k-means clustering is used to obtain high performance and efficiency in image segmentation. In addition, it has a resolving capability of one image into different planes by selecting the number of clusters using datasets of image. And also the advance of K-means is adaptive K-means which will give the frame size and the absolute value between the means of an image. The iteration time on image segmentation is determined by using Adaptive k-means clustering. Adaptive k-means is used for better image segmentation that has been shown in MATLAB Simulation.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, K-means, Adaptive k-means

Pages: 706 - 710 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

121. COMPARISON OF K-MEANS AND ADAPTIVE K-MEANS USING MATLAB SIMULATION

Authors: PANKAJ AGRAWAL , SACHIN M. JAMBHULKAR

Abstract: Image Segmentation based on K-means algorithm is presented in GUI (Graphical User Interface). The K-means algorithm and adaptive k-means clustering is used to obtain high performance and efficiency in image segmentation. In addition, it has a resolving capability of one image into different planes by selecting the number of clusters using datasets of image. And also the advance of K-means is adaptive K-means which will give the frame size and the absolute value between the means of an image. The iteration time on image segmentation is determined by using Adaptive k-means clustering. Adaptive k-means is used for better image segmentation that has been shown in MATLAB Simulation.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, K-means, Adaptive k-means

Pages: 706 - 710 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

122. APPLICATION OF DATA MINING TO HEALTH CARE

Authors: CHIRAG GANDHI , NAKUL SONI

Abstract: Data mining has been used extensively in many fields like retail, e-business, marketing, etc. and has provided pioneering results. This paper presents the application of data mining in health care. The paper compares data mining with traditional statistics, gives some advantages of automated data systems, enumerates the steps involved in data mining process. A growing number of data mining applications in health care have been discussed in this paper. Also the issues and challenges faced by data mining in health care are presented.

Keywords: Norwalk virus; West Nile virus; Listeriosis; GIS; computer-aided diagnosis (CAD); endoscopic ultrasonographic elastography (EUSE); multi-layer perceptron (MLP); malignant tumor; benign tumor.

Pages: 711 - 714 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

123. ROUTING AND DATA COMPRESSION IN SONET

Authors: BHUVNESH YADAV , VINAY VERMA

Abstract: With the increasing growth and demand for capacity in national, regional, and even metropolitan optical networks, we are increasing the bandwidth of the channel so that more data can be sent in appropriate time duration. So transmission delay is the main problem to send a large amount of data. To overcome this problem data should be routed to the minimum possible route for this there are various routing protocols which can be used to route the data in optical networks. In this paper I am using two routing protocol to send the data and analyzing the performance parameters such as end to end transmission delay and throughput of the network.

Keywords: Routing Information Protocol, Open Shortest Path First, SONET, Compression.

Pages: 715 - 719 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

124. IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY BY USING MAPPING OF LETTERS TO PIXELS AND INDICATOR CHANNELS

Authors: ASHISH OBEROI , JATINDER KUMAR

Abstract: By using Steganography the existence of a message can be hide so that if it commonly perfomed successfully then found no suspicion at all. Using steganography, information can be hidden in such as images, audio files, text files, videos files and other means of data transmissions. The main idea for this is to use enough number of bits from each pixel in an image to map them to 26 alphabetic English characters (\'a\'…\'z\') and some special characters that are mostly using in writing a secret message. We know that in every image, there are pixels. Each pixel contains three bytes named as Red, Green and Blue(RGB) channel. The algorithm uses mapping method for data hiding and Pixel Indicator Technique for indication that data is hidden here. The basic concept is to convert secret message into ASCII ( American Standered Code of Information Interchange code.

Keywords: Steganography, LSB, encryption, cryptography

Pages: 720 - 722 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

125. VARIABLE LENGTH DECODER FOR STATIC HUFFMAN CODE

Authors: T.G.PANSE

Abstract: The proposed work is aimed at designing Variable-Length Decoder for Huffman code. Using the decoder we can obtain the original data from the compressed data .The system is designed using VHDL and the source code can be targeted to any FPGA for several applications. sound, voice, image compressions are frequently used in a real time application such as the broadcasting, the Variable-Length Decoder can be designed for a real time application. Emphasis has been given to design a simple working solution with minimum possible circuitry.

Keywords: Huffman encoder, Variable length decoder

Pages: 723 - 727 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

126. AN ELEGANT LOAD BALANCING SCHEME IN GRID COMPUTING USING GRID GAIN

Authors: AJAY NAYAK , BUDDHADEB PRADHAN , DIPTENDU SINHA ROY

Abstract: Grid Computing is a form of distributed Computing that has emerged as a viable solution to meet the ever increasing needs for computational power and data management capability. Designing solutions in such grid computing framework entails addressing much more complicated issues compared to chore software development, namely concurrency, heterogeneity, scalability and so forth; just to name a few. In order to simplify the task of programming in grid environment a software layer is employed to mask off the massive underlying heterogeneity in network, hardware, operating system and programming languages, known a middleware. Moreover, load scenario in a grid is dynamic and thus incorporating appropriate load balancing mechanism becomes a challenging proposition. This paper addresses two major issues in context of load balancing in compute grids: namely, average CPU load and heap memory in a grid scenario. For experimentation purposes, Grid Gain has been incorporated as middleware.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Load Balancing, Grid Gai

Pages: 728 - 731 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

127. MICROCONTROLLER IMPLEMENTATION OF A VOICE COMMAND RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

Authors: NILESH N. KASAT , SUNPREET KAUR NANDA

Abstract: The speech recognition system is a completely assembled and easy to use programmable speech recognition circuit. Programmable, in the sense that the words (or vocal utterances) you want the circuit to recognize can be trained. This board allows you to experiment with many facets of speech recognition technology. It has 8 bit data out which can be interfaced with any microcontroller (ATMEL/PIC) for further development. Some of interfacing applications that can be made are authentication, controlling mouse of your computer and hence many other devices connected to it, controlling home appliances, robotics movements, speech assisted technologies, speech to text translation and many more.

Keywords: MATLAB, TRAIN

Pages: 732 - 736 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

128. STUDY AND SIMULATION OF FUZZY LOGIC BASED SPEED CONTROL OF MULTI LEVEL INVERTER FED PMBLDC DRIVES

Authors: M. A. GAIDHANE , SONALI U. MADANKAR

Abstract: This paper presents an analysis by which the dynamic performances of a permanent magnet brushless dc (PMBLDC) motor drive with different speed controllers can be successfully predicted. The control structure of the proposed drive system is described. The dynamics of the drive system with a classical proportional-integral (PI) and a Fuzzy-Logic (FL) speed controllers are presented. The simulation results for different parameters and operation modes of the drive system are control signals investigated and compared. The results with FL speed controller show improvement in transient response of the PMBLDC drive over conventional PI controller.

Keywords: PMBLDC motor drive, multi level inverter, PI controller, Fuzzy Controller.

Pages: 737 - 740 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

129. MEASURING PARAMETERS FOR SPEECH QUALITY IN CELLULAR NETWORKS

Authors: RAKESH KUMAR , SANDEEP SAINI

Abstract: The rapid growth of cellular networks in recent years results into the need of optimization of networks, so that they provide a better service to customer without any interruption. The needs of a Cellular operator include proper delivery of data and voice to the Mobile Stations or user equipments. Speech quality experienced by the end user can be regarded as one of the most significant quality aspects of mobile communication. This paper includes a review of the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) parameters based Speech Quality Index (SQI) in details that are used to enhance the ability of the cellular network to provide techniques to improve Quality of Service. Speech Quality methods can categorized based on measure and performance evaluation which motivate why speech quality measure is important and possible in given radio link status. SQI is technique that allows cellular network to provide measurement of speech quality that has applications from equipment installation to daily network

Keywords: drive test (DT), key performance indicator(KPI), speech quality index(SQI)

Pages: 741 - 746 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

130. NON LINEAR DIMENSIONAL REDUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR FACE RECOGNITION

Authors: S. BUDHIRAJA , S.K. SANDHU

Abstract: Face Recognition is rapidly growing field due to ease of its application in many vital security systems. In this paper, two non linear dimension reduction techniques namely LLE and ISOMAP are combined for implementing face recognition. Since face image database is believed to be non linear in nature due to varying pose, facial expressions and illuminations , superiority of non linear combination over linear combination is shown. Experimental results based on ORL database demonstrate effectiveness of above statement.

Keywords: Face Recogntion , Linear dimensionality Reduction , Non linear dimensionality reduction, PCA, LDA, LPP, ISOMAP and LLE.

Pages: 747 - 749 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

131. FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF USB 2.0 RECEIVER PROTOCOL

Authors: N.S.PANCHBUDHE , G.A.JICHKAR , S.S.SHRIRAMWAR

Abstract: The Universal Serial Bus (USB2.0) is support data exchange between a host computer and a wide range of simultaneously accessible peripheral like Mouse, keyboard, Digital camera, Printer, scanner etc..The USB2.0 supported three types of data transmission rates, those are operated Low speed (1.5MHZ), High speed (12MHZ) & Full speed (480MHZ). In this paper our coverage is up to implementation of USB 2.0 Receiver protocol on FPGA kit [SPARTAN-II XC2S200]. The FPGA design of USB 2.0 Receiver protocol provides an interface for ‘system on chip ‘designer to connect UBS bus. This will save the design time and the time required for debugging and testing a USB controller. The USB 2.0 Receiver protocol has been developed in VHDL which is a widely used hardware description language and is supported by the major FPGA designer such as Xilinx and Altera. The VHDL code for the USB 2.0 Receiver protocol is synthesizable onto a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA and is synthesizable onto other types of FPGAs

Keywords: FPGA, USB Protocol, Transreceiver, PID, SOF, CRC, Bit Stuffer etc.

Pages: 758 - 762 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

132. SECURITY AND PRIVACY ENABLING LIGHTWEIGHT SOLUTION FOR VEHICULAR NETWORKS

Authors: PARDEEP SINGH , UPASANA SINGH

Abstract: Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging area of wireless networks which allows vehicles to communicate enabling Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Immense amount of research is going on both by industry and academia. In vehicular communication there occurs frequent handover because of the high speed of vehicles and hence there is always a requirement of secure and fast authentication for a seamless handover to take place. In this paper we propose an authentication scheme that will not only provide security and privacy but also will reduce the storage and communication overhead increasing the efficiency.

Keywords: Vehicular Networks, Security, Privacy, Authentication, VANET.

Pages: 763 - 767 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

133. CONCEPT-BASED MINING MODEL FOR WEB DOCUMENT CLUSTERING

Authors: B ESWARA REDDY , K MUNIVELU REDDY

Abstract: Most of the document clustering techniques are based on statistical analysis of a term, either a word or phrase.The statistical analysis of a term frequency captures the importance of the term within the document only. Thus, the underlying mining model should indicate terms that capture the semantics of the text. In this case, The mining model can capture terms that present the concepts of the sentence, which leads to the discovery of the topic of document. A new concept-based mining model focuses on the web document clustering;the model consists of three components: concept-based statistical analyzer, COG and concept extractor.The statistical analyzer is to analyze terms on the sentence and document levels. The COG is to extract the most important terms with respect to the meaning of the text. The concepts that have maximum weights are selected by the concept extractor.The similarity between documents is calculated based on the Concept-based document similarity measure;

Keywords: Concept-based mining model, COG, web mining, clustering, document similarity.

Pages: 768 - 772 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

134. A SELF-OPTIMIZED MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Authors: B.V.RAMANA RAJU , M.RIYAZ PASHA

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is becoming a progressively important and a challenging research area. Advancements in WSN enable a wide range of environmental monitoring and object tracking applications. Moreover, multihop routing in WSN is affected by new nodes constantly entering or leaving the network. Therefore, the self-optimized and self-aware mechanism is required to handle the problems arise very frequently in WSNs. The ant colony optimization has shown excellent results in discovering routes for WSN. In this paper, the model of self-optimized multipath routing algorithm for WSN and its results are presented. Certain parameters like energy level, delay and velocity are considered. These decisions will come up with the optimal and organized route for WSN. In addition, the stated algorithm is enhanced with the multipath capability to avoid congestion state in WSN. Eventually, the enhanced feature helps WSN in maximizing the data throughput rate and minimizing the data loss

Keywords: ant colony optimization, multipath, routing protocol, self-optimization, wireless sensor network

Pages: 773 - 777 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

135. PRINTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR CDMA AND GSM FREQUENCIES

Authors: MANISH MISHRA , REKHA GUPTA

Abstract: In this paper a novel printed monopole antenna for CDMA and GSM frequencies is proposed. The given antenna is composed of a rectangular patch monopole printed antenna having three rectangular slots, of different dimensions, in decreasing order of area. The antenna is designed for CDMA 800 and GSM 900 standard. It covers the frequency range of both above standard, 824-894 MHz for CDMA 800 and 890-960 MHz for GSM 900, with resonant frequency of 878 MHz having -41.5dB return loss and VSWR < 1.5. A rectangular ground structure is used for minimizing the return loss. The 50 ohm probe feed is used to fed the proposed antenna.

Keywords: monopole, CDMA , GSM, printed antenna

Pages: 778 - 780 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

136. MULTIPLE CHANNEL IMPLEMENTATIONS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS

Authors: ARABINDA PRADHAN , BHUPENDRA KUMAR GUPTA , BISWA MOHAN ACHARYA

Abstract: The much research progress has been made in network capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks, WMNs have not been fully explored due to the difference between WMNs and ad-hoc networks. The result about network capacity and optimum node density of ad-hoc networks may not directly be applied to the WMNs because both stationary and mobile ad-hoc nodes exist in WMNs. In last decade much research has been carried out to study the capacity of ad-hoc networks which can be adopted to investigate the capacity of WMNs. In this topic we used two techniques, multi- channels per radio and multi- radios per node. These techniques can be used in WMNs to increase its capacity. In Wireless Mesh Networks each mesh node equips with multiple 802.11 network interface cards (NICs). The central design issues of this multichannel WMN architecture are channel assignment and routing.

Keywords: wireless mesh networks, multiple channels, multiple interfaces, channel assignment, channel dependency.

Pages: 781 - 787 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

137. RADIX-4 FACTORIZATIONS FOR THE FFT WITH ORDERED INPUT AND OUTPUT

Authors: RITESH VYAS , JITENDER KUMAR , SANDEEP GOYAT , SANDEEP KAUSHAL , VIKRANT

Abstract: In this work we derive two families of radix-4 factorizations for the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) that have the property that both inputs and outputs are addressed in natural order. These factorizations are obtained from another two families of radix-2 algorithms that have the same property. The radix-4 algorithms obtained have the same mathematical complexity (number of multiplications and additions) that Cooley-Tukey radix-4 algorithms but avoid de bit-reversal ordering applied to the input or at the output.

Keywords: Fast Fourier Algorithms, Fast algorithms

Pages: 788 - 793 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

138. CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL BASED ON COLOR AND TEXTURE FEATURES

Authors: SWATI V. SAKHARE , VRUSHALI G. NASRE

Abstract: Retrieval of images based on visual features such as color, texture and shape have proven to have its own set of limitations under different conditions. Various techniques have been implemented using these features like fuzzy color histogram, Tammura texture etc. In this paper we propose a novel method with highly accurate and retrieval efficient approach which will work on large image database with varied contents and background.

Keywords: Fuzzy-Color Histogram, Tammura Texture, Boundary and shape representation.

Pages: 794 - 799 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

139. A NEW HYBRID METHOD FOR IMAGE APPROXIMATION USING THE EASY PATH WAVELET TRANSFORM

Authors: DEEPIKA DUBEY , SUNIL AHIRWAR

Abstract: The easy path wavelet transform (EPWT) has recently been proposed by one of the authors as a tool for sparse representations of bivariate functions from discrete data, in particular from image data. The EPWT is a locally adaptive wavelet transform. It works along pathways through the array of function values and exploits the local correlations of the given data in a simple appropriate manner. However, the EPWT suffers from its adaptivity costs that arise from the storage of path vectors. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid method for image approximation that exploits the advantages of the usual tensor product wavelet transform for the representation of smooth images and uses the EPWT for an efficient representation of edges and texture. Numerical results show the efficiency of this procedure.

Keywords: Adaptive wavelet bases, easy path wavelet transform (EPWT), linear smoothing filters, -term approximation, sparse data representation, tensor product wavelet transform.

Pages: 800 - 805 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

140. DESIGN OF STEPPED-IMPEDANCE MICROSTRIP LINE LOW PASS FILTER FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Authors: NAVITA SINGH , PRERNA JAIN , SAURABH DHIMAN , TANMAY BHARDWAJ

Abstract: Filters play an important role in microwave applications.Microwave systems have an enormous impact on modern society. Applications are diverse, from entertainment via satellite television, to civil and military radar system. In particular, the recent trend of multi-frequency bands and multifunction operations in wireless communication systems along with the explosion in wireless portable devices are imposing more stringent requirements such as size reduction tunability or reconfigurability enhancement and multiband operations for microwave circuits. This paper describes about the design of stepped-impedance microwave low pass filter by using Microstrip layout which works at 3.7 GHz for permittivity 4.4 value with a substrate thickness 1.6 mm for order n=3. The stepped-impedance low pass filter have a pass band ripple 0.1 dB. The development of the Microstrip filters are simulated by using IE3D simulator software.

Keywords: Low pass Filter, Dielectric Constant, Microstrip filter, Millimeter wave filter.

Pages: 806 - 808 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

141. MAPPING AND COMPARISON OF DATA MODELS IN DATA WAREHOUSE

Authors: JAYA GUPTA

Abstract: Many organizations owns billions of bytes data but may suffer from problem to access and analyze data. In order to solve this problem new concept and tools have evolved into a new information technology called data warehousing. A Data Warehouse is a collection of technologies aimed at enabling the knowledge worker to make better and faster decisions. Data warehouse is designed by using data models which act as a blueprint for the information requirements of an organization. Without a data model, the understanding, implementation and maintenance of the data warehouse are difficult. There are three levels of abstractions in the data modeling i.e. conceptual, logical and physical. Here in this paper we will create these data models and map one model from the earlier model which greatly helps in designing a data warehouse.

Keywords: Data warehouse, Conceptual Modeling, Logical Modeling, Physical Modeling

Pages: 809 - 813 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

142. CLOUD SECURITY THREATS

Authors: K. MANJU , SIBU THOMAS

Abstract: Cloud is a fundamental shift in the IT architecture, which is why there’s a lot fear amongst enterprise to move towards it. Knowing the types of security risks involved can help reduce that fear and increase its adoption. Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Implementing a Cloud computing solution requires many parameters to be preconceived, including the premise of security. The aim of this paper is to highlight the security challenges currently faced in the Cloud computing. The importance of security requirements is discussed by illustrating the Cloud trade of like identifying the right cloud service provider, vulnerabilities of shared technologies, data aggregation programs. Security in Cloud computing is dependent on the capabilities and constraints of the Cloud.

Keywords: Virtualization, Cloud service providers, Data aggregation, Premise-based vulnerability, and Cloud based vulnerability

Pages: 814 - 823 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

143. ENERGY EFFICIENT DATA COLLECTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK - A SURVEY

Authors: ROHIT ANAND , K.K PALIWAL , PRIYANKA GARG

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are the networks that can sense, calculate and then communicate the data. To collect the data at sensor nodes consumes a lot of energy but sensor nodes are energy constraint. In this paper we will discuss an algorithm, which is energy efficient by transmission of minimum number of reference data, (i.e. minimum number of reference data transmission) number of bits required to transmit that data will also reduced and by placement of nodes in the network in such a position that the distribution of energy will balance. It will provide efficient energy consumption in case of node failure also.

Keywords: Sensor nodes, Energy Efficiency, Reference data, CDS, RCDS

Pages: 824 - 827 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

144. ECG COMPRESSION BY EFFICIENT CODING

Authors: A. K. WADHWANI , MANJARI SHARMA

Abstract: Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm is needed to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored and analyzed, without losing the clinical information content. This work investigates a set of ECG data compression schemes to compare their performances in compressing ECG signals. These schemes are based on transform methods such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), fast fourier transform (FFT), discrete sine transform (DST), and their improvements. An improvement of a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based method for electrocardiogram (ECG) compression is also presented as DCT-II. A comparative study of performance of different transforms is made in terms of Compression Ratio (CR) and Percent root mean square difference (PRD).The appropriate use of a block based DCT associated to a uniform scalar dead zone quantiser and arithmetic coding show very good results, confirming that the proposed strategy exhibits competitive performances compared with the most popular.

Keywords: ECG, compression, transform methods, CR, PRD.

Pages: 823 - 833 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

145. 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

Authors: ABHISHEK GAGNEJA , RAVI RAJ

Abstract: With the emerging innovations in wireless communication networks, it is anticipated that fourth generation (4G) mobile systems will be launched within a decade or before. 4G mobile systems focus on seamlessly integrating the existing wireless technologies including WCDMA, HSUPA/HSDPA, 1xEVDO, Wireless LANs, and Bluetooth. 4G systems aspire to support comprehensive and personalized services, providing stable system performance and quality services. However, with everchanging specifications and standards, developing a prototype that provides the 4G system’s capabilities requires a flexible process. Besides, migrating current systems to 4G present’s enormous challenges. This paper is an attempt to give a brief description of fundamentals like dangers, challenges of 4G and about the visions that the network operators and service providers see for the evolution of 4G mobile systems. The paper endeavors to make an evaluation on development, transition and roadmap for fourth generation mobile

Keywords: 3G Networks, 4G Mobile Communications, IP

Pages: 840 - 847 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

146. AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS PREPAID BILLING OF DIGITAL ENERGY METER

Authors: NIPUN KUMAR MISHRA , RICHA SHRIVASTAVA

Abstract: The present system of energy billing is error prone and also time and labor consuming. Errors get introduced at every stage of energy billing like errors with electro-mechanical meters, human errors while noting down the meter reading, and errors while processing the paid bills and the due bills. There are many cases where the bill is paid and then is shown as a due amount in the next bill. There is no proper way to know the consumer’s maximum demand, and usage details. The major drawback of a post paid system is that there is no control of usage from the consumer’s side. There is a lot of wastage of power due to the consumer’s lack of planning of electrical consumption in an efficient way. Since the supply of power is limited, as a responsible citizen, there is a need to utilize electricity in a better and efficient way. The distribution company has to receive huge amounts in the form of pending bills, which results in substantial revenue losses.

Keywords: Wireless communication, EB office, RF system.

Pages: 848 - 850 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

147. AN EVOLUTIONARY K-MEANS CLUSTERING APPROACH TO RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS

Authors: DHARMINDER KUMAR , KANUPRIYA BHAO , SAROJ

Abstract: The main strengths of k-means clustering, the most widely used clustering technique for recommender systems, is its simplicity and ease of applicability to practical problems. However, k-means clustering suffers from the drawbacks of falling in local optima and the quality of clusters is largely dependent on the initial cluster centers. An important contribution of this paper is a hybrid k–means clustering approach to recommender systems that combines ‘outside the box’ recommendation ability of collaborative filtering with kmeans clustering and Genetic Algorithms. In this approach, genetic algorithm operators are used to pick up appropriate initial seeds for k-means clustering. This helps in improving cluster quality, thereby suggesting a new approach to recommender systems.

Keywords: Recommender Systems, Collaborative filtering, kmeans clustering, Genetic algorithms

Pages: 851 - 855 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

148. ANALYSIS OF POWER IN OPTICAL SINGLE SIDE BAND TECHNIQUE FOR RADIO OVER FIBER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Authors: ABHIMANYU , JITENDER KHURANA , SHELLY GARG

Abstract: In this paper, we have analyzed the impact of laserspectral width and differential delay due to chromatic dispersion, incorporating dual-electrode Mach–Zehnder modulator (DEMZM), in radio-over-fiber(RoF) transmission system and results have been obtained. The results are calculated for 10 to 30 Km optical single side band (OSSB)–RoF transmission system by varying the laser line width. RoF system with OSSB has been used as it is tolerable for power degradation due to a chromatic fiber- dispersion, through a standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) carried by a continuous wave (CW) laser at 1550 nm of laser-spectral width varying from 100MHz to 650 MHz with CW power of 10mW that modulates a single RF channel of 30GHz. It has been found that deployment of lasers with lower spectral width will help the telecom industry to reduce the designing cost of RoF communication systems.

Keywords: RoF, DEMZM, OSSB

Pages: 856 - 860 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

149. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VARIOUS KEY EXCHANGING ALGORITHMS

Authors: GURPREET SINGH , NAVITA SAINI , P.R. SURI , SUSHIL PENSIA

Abstract: The concept of public key Cryptosystem evolved from an attempt to attack two of the most difficult problems associative with symmetric encryption. The initial problem is that of key distribution. As we have seen, key distribution under symmetric encryption requires either (1) that two communication already share a key, which somehow is distributed to them; or (2) the use of key distribution centre. Finally, there is a feeling that key distribution is trivial when using public key encryption, compared to the rather cumbersome handshaking involved with key distribution canters for symmetric encryption. This paper provides an overview of various public key algorithms and a comparison between them is made on the basis of Key size, security and Cost. First we discuss the RSA algorithm, Diffie Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm and EC Cryptography – (ECDH – Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman) and a comparison between them is made on the basis of Key size, security and Cost.

Keywords: YCbCr, HSI, Matlab

Pages: 872 - 878 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

150. SELECTION OF PULSE FOR ULTRA WIDE BAND COMMUNICATION (UWB) SYSTEM

Authors: ASHISH K. CHARBE

Abstract: UWB (Ultra Wide Band) technology is a reliable transmission scheme for wireless communication with high data rates. UWB is defined as signals with fractional band width more than 20% of its central frequency or as signals with bandwidth more than 500MHZ. UWB can be characterized with ultra-short duration pulses called monopulses which has excellent immunity in interference from sensitivity or multi path effects or fading problems. Pulse shaping and baseband modulation schemes are two of the main determinant factors for its performance evaluation. The objective of the paper is to examine different types of pulse shaping and modulation schemes for UWB performance evaluation. By considering three different types of pulses and modulation techniques the BER (bit error rate) performance of the modulation techniques are evaluated in the presence of the AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise).Depending upon the BER, we decide the which modulation and pulse are considered for UWB system.

Keywords: ultra wide band(UWB), Gaussian pulse, AWGNchannel.

Pages: 879 - 882 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

151. APPLICATIONS OF ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION ACO(TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM)

Authors: PARDEEP KUMAR MITTAL

Abstract: The ant colony optimization takes insipiration from the foraging behavior of some ant species.These ants deposits pheromone on the ground in order to make some suitable path that should be followed by other members of the colony.The goal of this paper is to introduce ant colony optimization and to survey its most notable applications.In this paper we focus on some research efforts directed at gaining a deeper understanding of the behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms in different fields.

Keywords: Ant Colony optimization,metaheuristic algorithm,Parallel Ant Colony Optimization, Immunized Ant Colony Optimization.

Pages: 883 - 886 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

152. INTRUSION DETECTION AND PREVENTION SYSTEM

Authors: DAYAMA MEETA , PALIKA JAJOO

Abstract: As the importance of computers are increasingly integrated into the systems the ability to detect intruders in computer systems also increases as we rely on for the correct functioning of society.Intrusion detection is a mechanism used to detect various attacks on a wired or wireless network. The process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for sign of intrusions is known as Intrusion Detection System (IDS). There are two basic approaches: anomaly detection and misuse detection. Both have naturally scaled to use in distributed systems and networks. This paper reviews the history of research in intrusion detection as performed in software in the context of operating systems for a single computer, a distributed system, or a network of computers.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, Distributed System, Intrusion Detection , Network.

Pages: 887 - 891 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

153. A LOW-POWER CIRCUIT TECHNIQUE FOR DYNAMIC CMOS LOGIC

Authors: KAMALA KANTA MAHAPATRA , PREETISUDHA MEHER

Abstract: Dynamic logic style is used in high performance circuit designs because of its faster speed and lesser transistor requirement as compared to static CMOS logic style. Dynamic logic has inherent disadvantages like less noise immunity and high power consumption. In this paper we have proposed a novel circuit technique for implementing dynamic gate. The proposed circuit has very less power dissipation with almost same noise immunity compared to the recently proposed circuit techniques for dynamic logic styles to improve noise immunity. The concept is validated through extensive simulation.

Keywords: Domino logic, dynamic logic, power consumption, leakage tolerance, robustness.

Pages: 892 - 895 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

154. ILLUSTRATION OF TIMESTAMP ORDERING IN CONTROLLING CONCURRENCY IN DISTRIBUTED DATABASE

Authors: PREETI BHATI , RINKI CHAUHAN

Abstract: A distributed database consists of different number of sites which are interconnected by a communication network. In this environment in absence of proper synchronization among different transaction may lead to inconsistency of databases. In this paper we are going to discuss various timestamp ordering algorithms for concurrency control. These algorithms are also illustrated with an example.

Keywords: transaction, concurrency control, timestamp, distributed database

Pages: 896 - 899 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

155. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOL USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE

Authors: B.M. ACHARYA , S.R.DAS

Abstract: The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in applications such as disaster management, combat field reconnaissance, border protection and security surveillance. Sensors in these applications are expected to be remotely deployed in large numbers and to operate autonomously in unattended environments. The sensor nodes deployed in wireless sensor networks are extremely power constrained, so maximizing the lifetime of the entire networks is mainly considered in the design. In this paper, we proposed An energy efficient clustering algorithm with optimum parameters is designed for reducing the energy consumption and prolonging the system lifetime. Using a wireless sensor network, variety applications are being developed. Clustering of a sensor nodes elect to cluster head from among the sensor nodes and cluster heads to the sink node is configured a clustering and cluster head changing depends upon the available energ.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Energy Efficiency, Clustering, Cluster Head Selection. Multihop Communication,

Pages: 900 - 904 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

156. METHODS FOR CONVERTING SPEECH CODEC BETWEEN GSM AND G.729 THROUGH TRANSCODING SYSTEM

Authors: ABHIJIT B. MAIDAMWAR , PUNAM CHATI

Abstract: As we know that GSM coder is used for mobile communication and G.729 is commonly used in internet communication eg.VOIP. For modern communication network it is important that both networks should use interoperability. In this paper we discuss the transcoding system which convert speech codec format between G.729 and GSM. Transcoding system which we required for connecting two different networks, it should required less computation than the conventional decode thenencode (DTE). Through this transcoding system speech codec format can easily exchange information between these two different networks

Keywords: G.729, GSM, Transcoding System

Pages: 905 - 908 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-1847-3-1027

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