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Proceedings of

International Conference On Advances In Electronics, Electrical And Computer Science Engineering EEC 2012

Date
09-Jul-2012
Location
dehradun , India
Authors
286
ISBN
978-981-07-2950-9

106 Articles Published

1. LOCATION BASED EMERGENCY RESPONSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THROUGH SATELLITES IN ROAD NETWORKS

Authors: V. SHANTHI

Abstract: The integration of Wireless technologies, GIS and sensors, has opened new possibilities of developing an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The face of ITS are changing with modern applications like Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), Route Guidance Systems (RGS), Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), Performance Monitoring and Congestion management etc. An effective Intelligent Transportation System reduces traffic congestion, environmental pollution, trauma related mortality, fuel consumption and driver in-convenience etc. With advancements in Geographical Positioning Systems (GPS), Emergency Management Service are becoming an integral part of many new ITS mobile applications. In this paper, we introduce a new model for Location based Emergency Response Management System through Satellites in road networks. We propose a technique where an automatic voice call is transferred based on the severity of accident to nearest help center in case of emergency on roads. T

Keywords: Processing, Spatial Databases, Skyline Queries, GIS, GPS,

Pages: 1 - 5 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9123

2. TOWARDS APPLICATION OF SIMULATION IN A SOCIAL SCENARIO

Authors: MOHAMMED NAJEEB AHSAN , S.A.M RIZVI , ZEBA KHANAM

Abstract: There are number of research practices, methodologies and tools existing and evolving to help the social science researchers in conducting there research studies such as doing surveys, analyzing quantitative and qualitative data etc.Social simulation models have a significant role play in the area of social sciences. The role of social simulation models have increased to such an extent that they are attempting to incorporate actual human social behaviour.This paper deals with the nature and implications of the growing importance of research in the area of social simulating models. The agent based social simulating models are supposed to serve as a prototype of the real social scenario. We discuss the purpose, design and direction of systems for the simulation of social phenomena from the perspective of a social expert and analyze their in real the world picture. The analytical study carried on social simulations is discussed on various parameters that have remained subtly trivial and i

Keywords: Social Simulation Models,Agent Based

Pages: 6 - 10 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9132

3. LUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS SYNTHESIZED IN ORGANIC PHASE

Authors: MURALI SASTRY

Abstract: The present work provides a potentially efficient and a simple chemical route for the synthesis of CdS & Cd(1-x) MnxS nanocrystals in organic phase at ambient room temperature. The nanostructures of the prepared undoped CdS and Mn2+ doped CdS:Mn nanoparticles have been analysed using UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared studies and fluorescence emission spectra have been studied. There is a wavelength shift in the emission of manganese doped samples. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles have been studied using the Transmission Electron Microscope.Chemical manipulation towards both size and shape tunable preparation is achieved successfully.

Keywords: Quantum confinement, absorption, emission,

Pages: 11 - 13 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9146

4. FUTURE ELECTRICAL GRID: SMART GRID

Authors: CHANDRA SHAKER , NAVEENKUMAR M

Abstract: The Smart regarded as the next generation power grid, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network. Creation of a Smart Grid provides utilities and their customers a significant improvement in power reliability and services. This paper presents a review on Smart grid technologies. One can see the characteristics, benefits, and challenges in the field of Smart grid. This paper gives brief discussion about the smart infrastructure system. Two-way flows of electricity and information lay the infrastructure foundation for the smart grid. This paper explains works on smart infrastructure system and outline of research directions and challenges.

Keywords: advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), distributed energy resources (DER), Smart Grid (SG), smart infrastructure system, smart distribution, smart generation, smart transmission.

Pages: 14 - 20 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9153

5. EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUE BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC

Authors: RITESH VYAS , ARCHNA AGGARWAL

Abstract: An edge is sharp change in intensity of an image. Now, since the overall goal is to locate edges in the real world via an image, the term edge detection is commonly used. If the edges in an image are identified accurately, all the objects are located and their basic properties such as area, perimeter and shape can be measured. Therefore edges are used for boundary estimation and segmentation in the scene. Uncertainty of image processing is handeled within the frame work of fuzzy logic. In this paper a novel method based on fuzzy logic reasoning strategy is proposed for edge detection in digital images without determining the threshold value. The proposed approach begins by segmenting the images into regions using floating 2x2 mask. The edge pixels are mapped to a range of values distinct from each other.

Keywords: Image Processing, Edge detection, Fuzzy Logic

Pages: 21 - 25 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9197

6. USE OF SOCIAL NETWORK MODELS FOR EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN IRAN

Authors: AMIN MEHDIPOUR , MARZIEH YAZDANIPOUR , MINA YAZDANIPOUR

Abstract: Recent trends in social network advances and its approach to social collaboration have had a great deal of influence on organizational and inter organizational information systems. Many studies have tried to utilize the emerging technology to build a sustainable business competency in organization. The aim of this study is to introduce an application of social network models for knowledge sharing and discuss potential benefits and limitations of this approach. So, after defining knowledge sharing concept and describing its methods and limitations we present a brief history of information sharing on the web. Also, related works in the field of social knowledge sharing networks in Iran is being reviewed. Finally, a web based social network model has been presented based on comparative analysis of some existing social network websites. The presented model appears to make a vital facilitation for knowledge sharing among its users.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, social networks, website

Pages: 26 - 30 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9300

7. BANDWIDTH IMPROVEMENT USING FOUR SLOTS IN OCTAGONAL MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

Authors: RUSHABH P.PATEL , SANYOG RAWAT

Abstract: The design and experimental demonstration of a Slotted Octagonal Patch MPA (Microstrip Patch Antenna) is presented which results in increases in Bandwidth from 3.95% to 12.5% at the range of 4.08GHz and the efficiency of 44.72 is also achieved. The geometry of slotted Octagonal MPA is designed on a FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant and tangent loss of 4.4 and 0.025 respectively.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Octagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna, Coaxial probe feed, 2D Radiation pattern.

Pages: 31 - 35 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9309

8. A POWER QUALITY SIGNAL GENERATOR IN LABVIEW ENVIRONMENT

Authors: A.K.SWAMI , RAVI SAXENA

Abstract: Power quality disturbances is an issue that is gaining the attention of researchers, electrical utilities and customers. For developing tools for power quality (PQ) analysis and diagnosis PQ data is required. Therefore a software controlled scheme for generation of the typical power quality disturbances, is presented in this paper. PQ disturbance signal generator is based on the LabVIEW and MATLAB integration concept. The developed virtual instrument (VI) can generate five different categories of the PQ disturbances like voltage swells, sags, swells with harmonics and sags with harmonics in addition to the normal voltage waveform of single phase system. Each of simulated PQ disturbances can be predefined and easily changed according to user requirements, using various combinations of the knobs and controls provided on the front panel VI. The simulated PQ data can be applied as a part of the procedures for verification testing and calibration of the instruments and equipment developed f

Keywords: Electric Power Quality, Power quality disturbance, MATLAB, LabVIEW application software, and Virtual instrumentation.

Pages: 36 - 39 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9332

9. OPTIMIZING THE RESPONSE OF A PID CONTROLLER FOR THREE TANK LIQUID LEVEL SYSTEM USING MULTIOBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHM

Authors: ASHUTOSH TRIPATHI , NITISH KATAL , S.G. MODANI , SANJAY KR. SINGH

Abstract: This paper proposes the application of multi-objective genetic algorithm for optimizing the response of the PID controller for a three tank liquid level system. Liquid level system is a large-lag, time varying and non-linear system and finds a wide application in food processing, iron and steel, industrial chemical processing and other industries and the quality of control directly affects the quality of products and safety of equipments. Optimizing the response helps in maintaining the level set point at certain desired and be able to accept new set points dynamically. By optimizing the PID controller and comparing the results obtained by conventional methods like Ziegler-Nichols; multi-objective genetic algorithm has a vanguard advantage in satisfying the performance criterion.

Keywords: PID Controllers, Controller Tuning, MultiObjective Genetic Algorithm , Ziegler-Nichols, Three Tank Liquid Level System.

Pages: 40 - 43 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9335

10. SYSTEMATICS REVIEW AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG VARIOUS XML COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

Authors: GAURAV JAISWAL

Abstract: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) has been acknowledge as the defacto standard for data exchange over the web and data representation. But on the other hand its main drawback that of being huge in size. The huge document size means that the amount of information has to be stored, transmitted, and queried is often larger than that of other data formats. Several XML compression techniques have been introduced to deal with these problems. In this paper, we present an experimental study of available XML compression techniques and we provide guidelines for users for making an effective decision towards selecting the most suitable XML compression tool according their needs.

Keywords: Efficient XML Interchange, Gzip

Pages: 44 - 48 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9361

11. A SURVEY OF SMART HOMES TECHNOLOGIES

Authors: ZULKIFLI MOHAMED UDIN , FAROUK ABDALLAH SALEM

Abstract: Smart Homes, alias for the Automated Home, brings practical value by enabling greater convenience, comfort, safety, security and reduces operating costs. The residents can control many aspects of the home from anywhere at an time such as lighting, home appliances and entertainment by using home networking. This paper will briefly survey the various types of home networking technologies (either the wired or wireless technologies such as power line, phone line, Ultra Wide Band (UWB), and spread spectrum (SS)). The paper will critically analyse these techniques showing their advantages and shortcomings as well as how to use them to implement and control the different house appliances.

Keywords: smart home, power line communication, PLC

Pages: 49 - 54 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9365

12. GENERATING MULTI SERVER ENVIRONMENT FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF IDEAL PASSWORD AUTHENTICATION SCHEME

Authors: G.GEETHA , KULJEET KAUR

Abstract: Ideal Password Authentication Scheme comprises of two identity authentication parameters Fingerprint and Password. When two identity authentication parameters are used then for fortification of transport layer, mutual authentication is done in the Multi Server Environment of an organization. Paper elucidates the process for generating Multi Server Environment in an Organization. Complete implementation of ideal password authentication scheme in the multi server environment of an organization is revealed in the paper. Proof is derived in the paper that mutual authentication if done in the multi server environment of an organization then Phishing, IP Spoofing and Server spoofing would almost diminish. Overall paper concludes that intruders or hackers would be unable to spoof or hack at any level at the transport layer in multi server environment and fortification of transport layer security protocol is proved.

Keywords: Ideal Password Authentication Scheme, Multi

Pages: 55 - 59 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9376

13. A SOC BASED LOW POWER 8-BIT FLASH ADC IN 45 NM CMOS TECHNOLOGY

Authors: P. SHARMA , R. DUTTA

Abstract: In modern VLSI design the transistor sizing and scaling has an considerable impact. There are very essential two constrains, which needs serious attention to the VLSI chip designer are high speed and low power consumption. Therefore in this paper an 8-bit 3 Gs/sec flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in 45nm CMOS technology is presented for low power and high speed system-on-chip (SoC) applications. This low power 8-bit flash Analog to Digital converter comprises 255 comparators and one thermometer to binary encoder. This flash ADC design is an extended research work of the earlier work related to ADC design using CMOS process technology. The schematic simulation of ADC is done in Tanner-Spice Pro (SEdit) and layout simulation is done in Tanner-Spice Pro (L-Edit) V.15.14. The Simulated result shows the power consumption in Flash ADC is 41.78μw. The Threshold Inverter Quantization (TIQ) technique is proposed to get WPMOS/WNMOS < 1 for transistors to keep the power consumption as low

Keywords: Threshold Inverter Quantization technique, Modern VLSI

Pages: 60 - 64 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9391

14. SATELLITE IMAGE REPOSITORY SYSTEM AND WEB ENABLED SEARCH ENGINE

Authors: MINAKSHI KUMAR

Abstract: This paper articulates the design of a Web application that can integrate geospatial data management, visualization with capabilities of semantic search and web-mining technologies. This provides for the seamless integration of data sources from different satellite sensors through the single interface. The paper presents implementation of a Satellite Image repository with the aim to optimize the manual Search and download system. The objective is to design an automated system (computerized) which should undertake all the jobs that are essential for all the pre-requisites, searches and download of information about the imagery data. The system is capable of processing the various queries and searches placed by the users and respond in least time with most comprehensive and descriptive data.

Keywords: Remote Sensing Satellite data, Repository, Web

Pages: 65 - 69 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9393

15. POWER ARCHITECTURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS - A REVIEW

Authors: RAVINDRA. K. S , TULIKA SHANKER , V.RAVIPRASAD

Abstract: This paper gives a brief review of various power architectures suggested through years of research and implementation in various countries, by various firms and individuals for achieving low emission, high quality, minimal battery storage, high reliability, low operating cost, rapid Return of Investment (ROI), alternative sources of energy during long power outages, size of the telecom facility, modularity, redundancy, maintainability, Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR).

Keywords: station Power supplies, telecom energy schemes, power

Pages: 70 - 74 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9397

16. TECHNIQUES TO DISCOVER BLACK HOLE NODES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS USING AODV PROTOCOL

Authors: PUJA , R.K.SINGH , TANU PREET SINGH , V.K BANGA

Abstract: A wireless Adhoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. In the absence of a fixed infrastructure, nodes have to cooperate in order to provide the necessary network functionality. One of the principal routing protocols used in Ad hoc networks is AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) protocol. The security of the AODV protocol is compromised by a particular type of attack called ‘Black Hole’ attack [1]. In this attack a malicious node advertises itself as having the shortest path to the node whose packets it wants to intercept. It is proposed to wait and check the replies from all the neighboring nodes to find the Black hole nodes. In this paper, we detect the Black hole nodes or malicious nodes and after detecting it we will remove those nodes and also find the shortest path from source to destination by using GLOMOSIM. We propose that our protocol is increase the throughput, security and life time of the network by

Keywords: MANETS, black hole attack, malicious

Pages: 75 - 83 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9400

17. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A LOW-LEAKAGE 10T SRAM BIT-CELL USING DUAL-V TH SCHEME AT DEEP SUB MICRON CMOS TECHNOLOGY

Authors: MANISHA PATTANAIK , R.K.SINGH , S.BIRLA , SVEEN NAGPAL , NEERAJ KR. SHUKLA

Abstract: Exponential growth of battery powered portable applications demanding new SRAM cell topologies with low-leakage. In this work, an analysis and simulation on P-P-N based 10T SRAM cell using dual-Vth scheme (at deep sub-micron technology) is presented. This work achieved stand-by leakage reduced by 74% and 77% at VDD=0.8V and VDD=0.7V respectively without losing cells performance at an area power trade-off. The simulation is being performed at 45nm CMOS technology, Vthn = 0.22V, Vthp = 0.224V, VDD = 0.7 and 0.8V, and at T=27°C.

Keywords: Low power SRAM, Schmitt trigger, deep sub

Pages: 84 - 87 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9403

18. EVALUATION OF GI-FI TECHNOLOGY FOR SHORT-RANGE, HIGH-RATE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Authors: AFSANEH YAZDANIPOUR , AMIN MEHDIPOUR

Abstract: GiFi is a wireless transmission system which is ten times faster than Wi-Fi and it's chip delivers short-range multi gigabit data transfer in an indoor environment. In this paper this technology is defined in detail. Also a comparison is perform between Gi-Fi and some of existing technologies and it shows that this gigabit wireless technology has an edge over current technologies due to its high speed data transfer rate that is 5 Gbps, low power consumption and low frequency interference. The benefits and features of this new technology are explained and the applications for that are prescribed that can be helpful for use in development of the next generation of devices and places. By providing low-cost, high broadband access, with very high speed large files swapped within seconds it is expected that Gi-Fi to be the preferred wireless technology used in home and office of future. In this paper future of gigabit wireless technology also is traced.

Keywords: Gi-Fi; gigabit wireless; Wi-Fi;wireless technology;

Pages: 88 - 92 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9411

19. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF HIGH LEVEL LOW POWER 7T SRAM CELL USING VARIOUS PROCESS & CIRCUIT TECHNIQUE

Authors: B.N. GUPTA , S.K. DWIVEDI , SACHIN DUBEY

Abstract: Low power memory is required today most priority with also high stability. The power is most important factor for today technology so the power reduction for one cell is vital role in memory design techniques. In this paper we introduced some design circuit techniques for low power design. Leakage current in standby mode is the major part of power loss. We concentrate on the technique that to reduced the leakage current in standby mode.

Keywords: CMOS, SRAM, Threshold Voltage, Circuit techniques, Process Technique

Pages: 93 - 99 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9419

20. A NEW PROPOSED CACHE MEMORY CELL USING JOSEPHSON RESISTIVE DCI LOGIC GATE

Authors: K.SRINIVAS

Abstract: A new Cache memory cell has been proposed using the DCI logic gate. The principle and operation of the cell has been given. The current equation at each stage of the memory cell has been deduced. The dynamic response of the cell has been obtained by computer-simulation. The performance of our Cache memory cell has been compared with that of the IBM Cache memory cell. The cycle and access time of the proposed cell are 250ps and 210ps respectively, compared to earlier Cache memory cycle and access times, 1000ps and 650ps, respectively. Our Cache memory cycle time and access time can be further reduced since it is based on the DCI logic, which does not have much restriction on its size.

Keywords: Cashe Memory Cell, Dynamic Simulation

Pages: 100 - 104 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9426

21. LOS/NLOS CHANNEL IDENTIFICATION IN WSN

Authors: AKSHAY MAHAJAN , ASHOK KUMAR , MUNISH KUMAR , NIRAJ

Abstract: The accuracy and effectiveness of a Wireless Sensor Network depends on how efficiently the nodes can be localized and thus the cognizant of their position is of utmost importance. The presence of Non Line of Sight (NLOS) channel condition between the sensor nodes is one of the major hindrances for accurate ranging and localization in WSN. As a result there is a need for low complexity and robust algorithm which can effectively identify the channel condition and help in further mitigation of NLOS rangingerrors byusing an appropriate method. In this paper, we have proposed a very low complexity algorithm that only requires the RSSI (requiring no complex external hardware) for estimating the channel condition which can either be LOS or NLOS.This gives us an advantage and freedom of tackling the NLOS ranging using any amongst various suitable methods developed so far with no extra cost to bear.

Keywords: Of Sight (NLOS) identification, ToA-Time of arrival,

Pages: 105 - 108 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9428

22. DESIGN OF CCCDBA BASED VOLTAGE MODE DIFFERENTIATOR AND INTEGRATOR

Authors: SIDDHARTHA CHAUHAN , VISHAL BHATIA

Abstract: In this paper a voltage mode differentiator (First order high pass filter) and voltage mode integrator (First order low pass filter) have been proposed by using currentcontrolled current differencing buffered amplifier (CCCDBA). In the present work, an effort has been made to control the first order filters parameters electronically, adjusting bias current of CCCDBA. The designed circuits are very suitable for integrated circuit and very easy in implementation. The circuit performance is simulated through PSPICE and its simulated results obtained so is comparable to the theoretical one.

Keywords: filter, current-controlled current differencing buffered

Pages: 109 - 111 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9445

23. LOW-POWER SRAM CELL AT DEEP SUB-MICRON CMOS TECHNOLOGY FOR MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS

Authors: R.K.SINGH , KANISHK SHARMA , MANISHA PATTANAIK , NEERAJ KR. SHUKLA , R.K.SINGH , SHILPI BIRLA

Abstract: Our life is filled by various modern electronic products. Semiconductor memories are essential parts of these products and have been growing in performance and density in accordance with Moore's law like all silicon technology. The process technology has been scaling down from last two decades and to get the functional and high yielding design beyond 100-nm feature sizes the existing design approach needs to be modified to deal with the increased process variation interconnects processing difficulties, and other newly physical effects. Considerable increase in gate direct tunneling current in the nano-CMOS regime is because of scaling of gate oxide. Subthreshold leakage and gate direct tunneling current are no longer second-order effects. The effect of gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) is easily visible designs, such as DRAM and low power SRAM. All these effects cannot be ignored as it will lead to nonfunctional SRAM, DRAM, or any other circuit. Reducing the supply voltage which is now

Keywords: Tunneling current, GIDL, Feature Size, Process

Pages: 113 - 115 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9453

24. A NEW QUORUM SYSTEM FOR FAULT TOLERANT CHANNEL ALLOCATION IN CELLULAR WIRELESS NETWORKS

Authors: AJAY KUMAR , ABHISHEK KUMAR,

Abstract: The efficient use of the bandwidth allocated for a cellular wireless network is crucial for the satisfactory performance of the system. In order to increase the channel utilization, the channels are allocated to different cells in a dynamic way. The dynamic channel schemes can be categorized in to centralized and distributed. However, the centralized schemes are neither reliable nor scalable. The issue of fault tolerance is significant in cellular wireless networks because of mobility, poor quality of wireless links and other constraints. Moreover, most of the existing fault tolerant channel allocation algorithms have been designed in such a way that these can be used with hexagonal cells and for the reuse distance of one cell only. Therefore, in this paper, a new quorum system named as neighbor quorum system specifically useful in channel allocation in cellular wireless systems has been proposed. A fault tolerant distributed dynamic channel allocation algorithm using the newly propose

Keywords: Fault-tolerance, channel, quorum, cell

Pages: 116 - 121 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9459

25. FREQUENCY AGILE STACKED CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS

Authors: A. K. GAUTAM , BINOD KUMAR KANAUJIA

Abstract: A new frequency agile BST varactor loaded stacked circular microstrip antenna is presented. The antenna is analysed using extended cavity model. One of two bands of antenna is tunable with the help of BST varactor. The upper band is useful for WiMAX and lower band for other wireless communication systems. Various antenna parameters like return loss, resonant frequency, frequency agility etc. have been investigated. The simulated results agree well with the numerical data. A frequency agility of 60.64% is achieved, which is better than simple Varactor diode loaded antenna. Lowest resonant frequency of 0.866GHz is obtainable that shows a significant physical area reduction.

Keywords: stacked antenna, gain, bandwidth.

Pages: 122 - 127 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9465

26. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN INNOVATIVE SENSORY SYSTEM BASED SPIROMETER FOR DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF COPD AND CRPD DISEASES

Authors: MADHURIMA CHATTOPADHYAY

Abstract: This paper introduces an optics based sensory system to improve the performance of the conventional and modern (developed so far) spirometry in terms of cost, functionality, reliability for the diagnosis of two common respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic restrictive pulmonary disease (CRPD). In our present work, we have incorporated a cordless optics based sensing system which carries many unique features which include i) no external hardware interfacing circuit (for communication of signal to the computing device) thus reducing hardware complexity ii) A noise free computer compatible output. In order to analyze the output (coming out from the sensing system), we have derived an algorithm for faithful reproduction of the breathing pattern graphically. At the same time, the significant spirometric values are displayed numerically. This makes a more reliable approach by storing the information for future analysis to have a meaningful solution

Keywords: values, respiratory disorders, COPD, CRPD, electrical isolation,

Pages: 128 - 133 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9470

27. PRICING OF DISTRIBUTED RESOURCES

Authors: D.S.CHAUHAN , A. CHANDEL

Abstract: As a result of restructuring in the electric power sector economic as well as environmental issues have led increased interest in distributed resources. Distributed generation (DG) is not entirely new concept but it is emerging approach for providing electric power in the heart of power system. It mainly depends upon the installation and operation of a portfolio of small size, compact, and clean electric power generation units at or near the load (customer). The increased penetration level of DG in the distribution network has changed its characteristics from passive to active .Therefore it is relevant to consider the applicability of some pricing mechanism in distribution network that are finding application in short term operation of transmission networks. In this paper a methodology is proposed for nodal pricing of distributed resources for different type of loads. The method recommends significantly greater revenue under nodal pricing reflecting its contribution to reduced losses.

Keywords: Distributed generation (DG), Nodal

Pages: 134 - 137 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9473

28. A NOVEL APPROACH OF DUAL TREE COMPLEX WAVELET TRANSFORM (DT-CDWT) FOR IMAGE FUSION AND DENOISING

Authors: ALOK KUMAR , RAJIVA DWIVEDI , RUDRA PRATAP SINGH , SANDEEP NEGI

Abstract: In various real life applications such as remote sensing and medical image diagnosis image fusion plays imperative role and it is more popular for image processing applications. Because of inadequate nature of practical imaging systems the capture images or acquired images are corrupted from various noise hence fusion of image is an integrated approach where reduction of noise and retaining the original features of image is essential. Image fusion is the process of extracting meaningful visual information from two or more images and combining them to form one fused image. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has a wide rang of application in fusion of noise images. Previously, real valued wavelet transforms have been used for image fusion. Although this technique has provided improvements over more inhabitant methods, this transform suffers from the shift variance and lack of directionality associated with its wavelet bases. These problems have been overcome by the use of a reversible and

Keywords: Transform (DWT), Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet

Pages: 138 - 142 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9482

29. COMPARISON OF PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM & HGPP

Authors: AJEET SINGH , B.K. SINGH , BHUPESH BHATIA , VIJAYRAJ SHOKEEN

Abstract: In the field of face recognition, this paper explores a comparison of five most popular algorithms. These algorithms are Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) , Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Histogram of Gabor Phase Patterns(HGPP). The performance of the algorithms have been measured in terms of the accuracy, training time, testing time, total execution time and memory usage for train and test the databases. The algorithms have been tested on the AT&T and IFD face database. The investigation shows that SVM outperforms the rest of the algorithms.

Keywords: PCA, ICA, LDA, SVM, HGPP

Pages: 143 - 152 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9487

30. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PPM ADDERS

Authors: VIMAL KANT PANDEY , RAJEEV KUMAR

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study of different redundant binary full adders (Plus-Plus-Minus (PPM) adder). These PPM adders are simulated to evaluate their performance in total power dissipation, speed and PDP. The performances of these circuits are based on 180nm process model at a supply voltage of 1.8V. We also proposed a new design for PPM adder using 13-transistors. The simulation results reveal that the proposed design is more power, area efficient and faster than the best available PPM circuit in the literature.

Keywords: PPM adder; redundant binary adder; highspeed; low-power

Pages: 153 - 156 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9500

31. A REVIEW OF INTERLEAVERS FOR IDMA SYSTEMS

Authors: JAYSHRI SILMANA , P.S. SHARMA

Abstract: Interleavers play a key role in interleave division multiple access (IDMA). In IDMA the separation of the information of different users is achieved by interleaving. Criteria for a good interleaver design for IDMA include low memory requirement, easy generation, low complexity, low correlation among interleavers, low overhead for synchronization between user and base station. In this paper we are giving a review of different interleavers.

Keywords: dimension interleaver (2-DI), parallel interleaver (PI), prime

Pages: 157 - 162 | DOI: 10.3850/978-981-07-2950-9514

32. WIRELESS PERSONAL AREA NETWORK BASED SEMIAUTONOMOUS ROBOT USING 802.15.4 B LAN STANDARD PROTOCOL (ZIGBEE) WITH MATLAB GUI FOR COAL MINE USES

Authors: MADHU SHARMA , RAJESH SINGH , PURNENDUSHEKHARPANDEY , VIVEK KAUNDAL

Abstract: Being a nonrenewable and very efficient source of energy coal has been widely used to produce electricity; in many industries we use coal as a fuel also. Coal mining has been a very dangerous activity, underground mining hazards include gas explosions and suffocation which leads to death of coal miners every year and figures are very alarming. It may cause chronic lung disease and other respiratory disorders and shorten the life expectancy of miners. To overcome this problem we can introduce wirelessly controlled robots with the help of Graphical User Interface (GUI) of MATLAB, which are capable of doing mining and detecting the gas contents and temperature and send it back to the control room. Now the data which is now available in the receiving end determines the further action of robots. The whole process is cost effective and economically sound. Further these wireless robots have broad applications like in wireless home security applications, spy and war robots as they can make thr

Keywords: WPAN,ZIGBBE, MATLAB GUI

Pages: 163 - 169 | DOI: 10.15224978-981-07295099525

33. MOS LOADED CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA WITH AIRGAP FOR MODERN COMMUNICATION

Authors: A. K. GAUTAM , BINOD KUMAR KANAUJIA , GANGA PRASAD PANDEY , SURENDRA K. GUPTA

Abstract: In this paper a novel structure of circular microstrip antenna with airgap between ground plane and substrate is analyzed. To enhance the agility of antenna a MOS device is loaded on the patch. Various parameters such as input impedance, resonance frequency, bandwidth, frequency agility, VSWR, radiation pattern etc. of antenna are calculated to investigate the structure. The resonant frequency of proposed 10 mm radius patch with 1 mm airgap is 6.60 GHz. By varying bias voltage of MOS, antenna can be tuned down to 1.571 GHz operating frequency, which makes the antenna suitable for modern communication system such as GPS, UMTS, WiMAX and remote sensing. Frequency agility 76.20% is found for a MOS loaded CMSA with airgap.

Keywords: Circular patch, airgap, agility, MOS, microstrip

Pages: 170 - 175 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9526

34. REALIZATION OF BIDIRECTIONAL RESPONSE FROM A PART OF MAGNETIC CIRCUIT DUE TO D.C EXCITATION

Authors: RAJPUT A.K , SHARMA ATUL , TEWARI R. K

Abstract: Based on the theory of electromagnetic induction, a new method for obtaining alternating triangular voltage waveform across a secondary winding in a newly designed transformer change in position of core based on mutual induction is proposed when a d.c supply applied across a primary side of a transformer. This paper discusses the calculation of the flux position and the realization of the alternating triangular voltage waveform. The reasonability and validity are verified by the mathematical modulation for a ferromagnetic material is used .This method offers a new thinking for designing and modeling of transformer which is able to provide a secondary voltage.

Keywords: alternating triangular voltage waveform; ferromagnetic

Pages: 176 - 177 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9530

35. PSO BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT CONTROL AND OPERATION OF PARTIALLY LOADED THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

Authors: S. P. SRIVASTAVA

Abstract: This paper illustrates the importance of controllers on energy saving opportunity of a partially loaded three-phase induction motor drive in variable load and speed applications. An overview of various controllers: loss model controller, search controller and their hybridization are given. Fuzzy Pre-Compensated Proportional Integral (FPPI) is used to improve motor's dynamic performances during the activation of optimal energy controllers. The economics of a 100 HP induction motor is investigated with two topologies namely constant Volt/frequency (V/f) controller and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) controller in steady-state conditions. In this study, the flux level in a machine has been considered to be adjusted to give minimum operating cost for a given load/speed.

Keywords: mine hoist, particle swarm optimization, loss model controller,

Pages: 178 - 182 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9533

36. OPTIMAL GENERATION SCHEDULING OF HYDRO SYSTEM USING DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION ALGORITHM

Authors: MANOJ KUMAR , NARESH KUMAR YADAV , SOURAV CHOUBEY

Abstract: Hydro generation scheduling is a nonlinear programming problem. This paper describes the hydro generation scheduling problem constraints. The optimal hydro scheduling problem is formulated as a large scale linear programming algorithm and is solved using a commercially available linear programming package. The selected objective function requires minimization of demand and generation of a hydro system. This paper also proposes Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm to solve the nonlinear optimization problem for hydro generation scheduling. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated for the daily generation scheduling of a hydro system.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm , Daily optimal scheduling

Pages: 183 - 187 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9536

37. SETTING BRAIN INTO ACTION: A BRAIN COMPUTING INTERFACE (BCI) INVESTIGATION

Authors: JUHI AGARWA , R H GOUDAR

Abstract: Brain Computing Interface (BCI) provides the direct link between brain and computer device. People do not need any muscle movement. Brain states can be detected and translated into actions. Two basic requirements of brain and computing interface are the features useful to distinguish several kinds of brain states and methods for classification of signals.BCI have three types: invasive, partially invasive and noninvasive BCI, but non invasive is a safe technique.EEG is the most popular non invasive technique. After acquisition of signals, the feature extraction and classification methods are performed. These methods will play the main role in BCI system's output. If the misclassification is performed, then the error or wrong command will generate. Currently we have so many methods available for the classification like Linear discriminate analysis (LDA), Support vector machine (SVM), multiple layer perception (MLP), bayes quaderatic etc. but there are many challenges and issues in BCIs.

Keywords: interface, investigation

Pages: 188 - 193 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9539

38. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF DPLL USING 1.2μM CMOS TECHNOLOGY

Authors: B. P. SINGH , RACHANA ARYA

Abstract: Due to ever rising growth of wireless communication systems, the need for low power and cost effective devices is growing exponentially. The Phase locked loops (PLL) are the fundamental circuit elements of data transmission systems and have wide applications in data modulation, demodulation and mobile communication. Voltage control oscillators (VCO) are the critical and necessary building blocks of these PLL systems. In This paper the design and analysis of digital phase locked loop (DPLL) has been discussed. Phase locked-loops (PLLs) are widely using to generate well-timed on-chip clocks to be used in high-performance digital systems. The design is applied to the T-SPICE simulation program; implemented in a 1.2μm CMOS technology and at 5V supply voltage to operate VCO at a frequency of 987.6 KHz with a delay time of 202.49965ns.

Keywords: VCO, DPLL, Phase frequency detector, Loop filter.

Pages: 194 - 198 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9544

39. INTEGRATED PROTOTYPE FOR HEAT DETECTION BY INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY & ALKALI METAL DETECTOR AND THEIR ALLOYS IN FAST REACTORS USING ZIGBEE TRANSCEIVER MODULE BASED PERSONAL AREA NETWORK

Authors: PURNENDUSHEKHARPANDEY , RAJESH SINGH , VIVEK KAUNDAL , SHASHANK MISHRA

Abstract: Safety is the most important concern in all the sectors. We can able to provide special security in WPAN and it is made possible by integrating various sensors with ZigBee network. It to provide simple and effective security solution for whatever the threatening come. The intimidating may be a human intrusion, metal detection, fire hazardous problems and many more problems. This paper develop the real time prototype which is an integrated system designed for heat detection using infrared based heat detection sensor and alkali metal detector in a large nuclear reactors using CC2500 ZigBee Transceiver module. Anybody intrudes in that particular area can be Fire detector detected, its work up to 10m distances. Fire Sensors: True model fire sensors will be employed in this project, which can capture the fire and provides logic signals to the electronic circuits. Metal detector: An inductive proximity sensor will be used in this project to detect bomb and metal hazards. This sensor is so in

Keywords: ZigBee, Metal detector, Fire detector,

Pages: 199 - 205 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9550

40. AUTOMATED WATERING SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

Authors: FARUK BIN POYEN , SANTU GUIN , DIBYENDU BANERJEE

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop one better method of watering agricultural field using automation applying basic physical properties of certain chemicals easily available around us. Water, which happens to be a great natural resource, is becoming a scarcity allowing very lean chance to waste it. The approach worked out over here, is a mere approach towards saving it, stopping it from wastage and utilizing it for other more needful purposes. The paper is inspired from the fact rendered that Gypsum suffers certain change in its electrical property in presence of water. We have worked further for the betterment of the response obtained done by some other workers in the same field.

Keywords: moisture sensor; automated watering;

Pages: 206 - 209 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9555

41. BIOMETRICS- A REVIEW

Authors: DEVENDRA NAGAL , GUNEET SINGH MEHTA , HARLEEN MEHTA , S.S. MEHTA

Abstract: An overview of biometrics has been presented in this paper. Biometrics deals with the study of fingerprint, face, iris, voice, signature and hand geometry. Many other modalities are in various stages of development and assessment. Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. The two categories of biometric identifiers include physiological and behavioral characteristics. A biometrics would identify by using voice, DNA, hand print or behavior. Behavioral characteristics are related to the behavior of a person, including but not limited to: typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics to describe the latter class of biometrics.

Keywords: Biometrics, applications, modes of operation

Pages: 210 - 240 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9558

42. NANOBOTS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Authors: GUNEET SINGH MEHTA , HARLEEN MEHTA , S.S. MEHTA , DEVENDRA NAGAL

Abstract: This paper proposes a simple overview of NANOBOTS. Nanotechnology is the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials, devices and systems at the nanometer scale. Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer. Nanorobotics can play a major role in medical applications, especially for target interventions into the human body through the vascular network.

Keywords: Nanobots, anotechnology, application in medical

Pages: 215 - 219 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9559

43. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY- SMART GRID

Authors: GUNEET SINGH MEHTA , HARLEEN MEHTA , S.S. MEHTA , SWATI SHARMA , DEVENDRA NAGAL

Abstract: Smart grids are a key suite of technologies to deal with pressing current and future needs in the electricity sector and to enable the effective adoption of low-carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energies and electric vehicles. The Smart Grid is a vision of a better electricity delivery infrastructure. Smart Grid implementations dramatically increase the quantity, quality, and use of data available from advanced sensing, computing, and communications hardware and software. As a result, they help utilities address two of today's most important business drivers: environmental concerns and power delivery constraints and disturbances.

Keywords: smart grid

Pages: 220 - 224 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9561

44. PAPR REDUCTION IN WIRELESS OFDM SYSTEMS

Authors: ARUN KUMAR , ASHISH KR GUPTA , R.K.SINGH , SANDIP VIJAY

Abstract: Non-linear programming has been extensively used in wireless telecommunication systems design. PAPR reduction is implemented in the handheld devices and low complexity is a major objective. High PAPR is one of the major disadvantages of OFDM system which is resulted from large envelope fluctuation of the signal. Our proposed technique to reduce the PAPR is based on constellation shaping that starts with a larger constellation of points, and then the points with higher energy are removed. The constellation shaping algorithm is combined with peak reduction, with extra abilities defined to reduce the signal peak. This method, called MMSE-Threshold, has a significant improvement in PAPR reduction with low computational complexity. The peak reduction formulated into a quadratic minimization problem is subsequently optimized by the semi-definite programming algorithm, and the simulation results show that the PAPR of semi-definite programming algorithm (SDPA) has noticeable improvement over M

Keywords: PAPR, OFDM, CDMA, AWGN, SDP

Pages: 225 - 229 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9566

45. SURVEY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

Authors: MARZIEH YAZDANIPOUR , MINA YAZDANIPOUR

Abstract: This paper focuses on social responsibility of governments in face with natural disasters, investment, control and decreasing Human and material looses of these disasters that its results will affect natural disaster management. In this paper disaster and disaster management are defined and then the infrastructure damage of different disasters is explained with some examples. A comparison is performed between the disaster management in a developing country and a developed country (Iran and Japan) based on their ability in services for managing disasters that shows the difference in looses and deaths.

Keywords: Disaster Management; Disaster; Tsunami; Disaster

Pages: 230 - 235 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9606

46. INVESTIGATING THE DIFFERENT WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

Authors: MARZIEH YAZDANIPOUR , ABOUZAR SHAHRAKI KIA , AMIN MEHDIPOUR

Abstract: The main reason for power loss during transmission and distribution is the resistance of wires used for grid and as growing all technologies in the world, nowadays one of the efforts is trying for accessing the power without wires. Wireless power transmission systems are designed to transmit power without using wires. In this paper Wireless Power Transmission is defined in detail and some of its applications are mentioned. Also components of a Wireless Power Transmission system are explained. Different types of Wireless power Transmission Systems are mentioned and described in detail along with their advantages and shortcomings. Then a comparison is performed between different PWT systems.

Keywords: WPT; Resonance coupling; Inductive coupling

Pages: 235 - 239 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9608

47. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OFDM MODEM BASED ON MAPPING TECHNIQUES & USE OF PILOT CARRIERS

Authors: ABHINAV BANSAL , AMAR ANAND , AMIT CHANDRA , B.D.PATEL

Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a combination of modulation & multiplexing. It is multi-carrier high transmission scheme which supports 4G and has tremendous scope in the field of wireless communication. This paper presents an analytical framework to calculate the data rate that can be achieved by using different mapping techniques viz. BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM in an OFDM system overcoming the challenges faced by this system. The concept of pilot carrier that has been used in OFDM is a way to combat the intrasymbol interferences. In this paper a study is performed that, which mapping technique should be used for a particular channel that exist as the communication medium. The trade off between error performance & high data rate must be chosen as per requirement.

Keywords: rate, Cyclic Prefix, LOS (Line of Sight) dominant

Pages: 240 - 244 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9614

48. EFFICIENT ROUTING IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS USING MULTICASTING ROUTING PROTOCOLS

Authors: TANU PREET SINGH , R.K.SINGH , MANISHA , NEHA

Abstract: Efficient routing mechanism is a challenging issue for group oriented computing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The ability of MANETs to support adequate Quality of Service (QoS) for group communication is limited by the ability of the underlying ad-hoc routing protocols to provide consistent behavior despite the dynamic properties of mobile computing devices. This paper presents a study of one to one and many to many communications in MANETs and provides a comparative performance evaluation of Unicast and Multicast routing protocols. AODV and DSR are used as unicast protocols and MAODV and ODMRP are used as represent multicast routing protocols. Problems in ad hoc networks are the scarcity of bandwidth, short lifetime of the nodes due to power constraints, dynamic topology caused by the mobility of nodes. These problems put in force to design a simple, scalable, robust and energy efficient routing protocol. In this paper I will discuss different types of routing protocols for mobi

Keywords: Routing, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks.

Pages: 245 - 250 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9619

49. LOAD BALANCING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS BY USING DIFFERENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS AND ALGORITHMS

Authors: TANU PREET SINGH , R.K.SINGH

Abstract: An ad-hoc network consists of a set of mobile nodes which are connected with each other by using radio waves. Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel. This network does not have any infrastructure or central administration, hence it is called infrastructure less network. As the nodes are mobile, it is very difficult to find the path between two end points. This paper presents a solution for finding path between nodes in mobile ad hoc network. For maintaining multiple routes between two endpoints on top of the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), and the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. A number of additional modifications are incorporated to the SCTP protocol in order to allow its smooth operation. Some of the parameters used to evaluate its performance are packet delays and throughput. The results of this algorithm shows better throughput as compared to existing algorithms. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load

Keywords: distributed systems, Static Load balancing,

Pages: 251 - 255 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9622

50. COMPARISON OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

Authors: TANU PREET SINGH , SHIVANI DUA , VIVEK MAHAJAN

Abstract: Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. It is a self organizing and self configuring network without the need of any centralized base station. In MANETs, the nodes are mobile and battery operated. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets [2]. The main aim of MANET is to build best routing algorithms that are adapted to randomly changing network topology [1]. In Few years, number of protocols has been developed and some comparisons are done on number of routing protocols like Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). To the best of our knowledge, no published work is available in the literature, which compares as many criteria as we have done to evaluate the performance of the considered routing protocols [1]. This paper evaluates the performance of various ad hoc routing protocols such as DSDV, AODV, DSR, TORA and AOMDV in terms of energy efficien

Keywords: MANET, Energy Efficient Routing.

Pages: 256 - 264 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9623

51. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CONGESTION RELIEF MANAGEMENT BY CONGESTION RELIEF CHARGE IN GAMING CONDITION

Authors: GURMEET SINGH , S.K.GUPTA , ROHIT VERMA

Abstract: Congestion relief management (CRM) is introduced as one of ancillary services in electricity market. The CRM maintains the system operation within the security limits and defines the revenue transaction for congestion relief. In this paper a mathematical model has been developed for actual congestion relief charge (CRC) in bilateral transaction as a penalty on the generator in the gaming condition. The Market clearing price (MCP) in uncongested system in two area are equal but in future when the load in area A1 or A2 varies then MCP in two area will differ. Generators want to do more transaction from low tariff area to high tariff area on the basis of profit maximization objective, resulting in line congestion. CRC, which is liable to be paid by the generator, will be equal to the generators profit in gaming condition. At this stage generator will not have tendency to do more transaction in high tariff area. Therefore, there will be automatic congestion relief management. This particul

Keywords: Congestion relief charge (CRC), Congestion relief index

Pages: 265 - 269 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9641

52. WIND POWER TRADING WITH VARIABLE DEMAND IN DEREGULATED ELECTRICITY MARKET

Authors: RAJNEESH PAWAR , SATISH KUMAR , ROHIT VERMA

Abstract: In the emerging electricity markets, a suitable trading mechanism is required to accommodate the wind power generations to recover their costs. This paper presents various market strategies in a competitive power market having wind generators. Till now, wind power trading studies has been done on the basis of fixed demand. In real life scenario fixed demand doesn't exist. In this paper a practical approach is proposed by taking variable demand. Market clearing price has been analyzed in both supply side and demand side bidding scenarios for bid trading models. Wind power can also play a vital role in ancillary services and mitigating the market power, but their costs must be recovered for successful promotion. Trading with wind power must be transparent for free and fair trade of electricity. An MCP index has been modeled to give indication of the MCP variations. This paper can be a guideline for the policy makers and Market Operators to promote the wind power with system transparency.

Keywords: Competitive power market, Bidding, Market

Pages: 270 - 274 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9643

53. MODIFIED APPROACH TO ESTIMATE THE PROPAGATION PATH LOSS IN URBAN AREA

Authors: R.K.SINGH , DINESH SHARMA , PURNIMA K SHARMA

Abstract: GSM is one of the most widely used technologies in the world of mobile communication. In this paper, we would discuss the influence of propagation environment in a GSM mobile network. Here we discussed the path loss during summer (when dust storms take place) in jaipur (State: Rajasthan; Country: India) by computing the received signal strength at various distances for four different visibility conditions. The Hata and many other path loss propagation models are compared with the measured data taken in the drive test. The result shows that the measured data and the Hata model are close while the other models undervalue the path loss phenomena. The significance here is that various forms of precipitation such as storms of sand and buildings in the urban region of Rajasthan lead attenuation in the received signal strength. The modification of hata model is given by considering building effects and dust storm effects in the above mentioned area.

Keywords: Global system for mobile (GSM), Quality of Service (QoS).

Pages: 275 - 279 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9679

54. A SMART WIRELESS TEMPERATURE MONITOR & CONTROL SYSTEM(ZIGBEE BASED WIRELESS SYSTEM)

Authors: DNYANESH P.JOSHI , NEELIMA S. IYER

Abstract: The proposed paper focuses on developing an embedded application for temperature monitor and control along with data logging, by implementing ZigBee protocol for wireless data transmission. The system comprises of central computing unit at field side and receiver at the user side. The central computing unit consists of a temperature sensor, signal conditioning circuit, ARM7 microcontroller and ZigBee RF module, whereas ARM7, LCD and ZigBee together form a receiver. ARM's on-chip 10-bit ADC is used for digitizing analog signals from the temperature sensor which are further processed for control & wireless transmission. With this utilization, it is possible to design a cost efficient, reliable and accurate system which is perfectly suitable for monitoring parameters in real time process dynamics especially in hazardous environments.

Keywords: Central Computing Unit (CCU), User Module (UM), Point to

Pages: 280 - 284 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9687

55. PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POLYSILICON REFINING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Authors: MAHENDRA SINGH , ROHIT VERMA

Abstract: The polysilicon industry has the potential to make India a major manufacturing hub for solar photo voltaic cells industry. The Indian polysilicon industry, critical to the manufacturing of solar PV cells, is taking shape, fueled by the booming solar PV market. The domestic demand of polysilicon is expected to be 250,000 metric tonnes upto the year 2050, taking into account the JNNSM and the state-level programmes. A coordinated development of solar polysilicon refining industry in India is required. A parametric analysis of polysilicon refining industry has been done in this paper. The opportunities, issues and possible solution analysis for the development of polysilicon industry and its refining process for the India has been done. This paper may be helpful to policy makers, investors and solar photo voltaic industry as a whole.

Keywords: photo voltaic, polysilicon, life cycle

Pages: 285 - 289 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9689

56. TWO DDCC BASED CASCADABLE VOLTAGE-MODE FIRST-ORDER ALL-PASS FILTERS

Authors: DURG SINGH CHAUHAN , GIRISH GARG , JITENDRA MOHAN , SUDHANSHU MAHESHWARI

Abstract: In this paper, four new voltage-mode first-order all pass filters are proposed. Each circuit employs two differential difference current conveyors (DDCC) and two passive components with no matching condition. The proposed circuits offer high-input and low-output impedance, low active and passive sensitivities, which is a desirable feature for the voltagemode systems. Non-ideal analysis and parasitic effect study is also performed. The theoretical results are verified by SPICE simulation.

Keywords: All-pass filter, analog circuits, current conveyor,

Pages: 290 - 294 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9690

57. HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE-MODE UNIVERSAL BIQUADRATIC FILTER WITH ONE INPUT AND FIVE OUTPUTS USING PLUS-TYPE DDCCS

Authors: DURG SINGH CHAUHAN , GIRISH GARG , JITENDRA MOHAN

Abstract: This paper presents a voltage mode universal biquadratic filter with one input and five output terminals, realizing all the standard filter functions that are high pass, band pass, low pass, notch and all pass, without changing the circuit topology. The proposed circuit employs three plus-type differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs), three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed filter enjoys the features of high input impedance and low active and passive sensitivities. PSPICE simulation results are given to confirm the validity of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: active filter, high input impedance, analogue

Pages: 295 - 299 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9692

58. HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE-MODE UNIVERSAL BIQUADRATIC FILTER WITH ONE INPUT AND FIVE OUTPUTS USING PLUS-TYPE DDCCS

Authors: DURG SINGH CHAUHAN , GIRISH GARG , JITENDRA MOHAN

Abstract: This paper presents a voltage mode universal biquadratic filter with one input and five output terminals, realizing all the standard filter functions that are high pass, band pass, low pass, notch and all pass, without changing the circuit topology. The proposed circuit employs three plus-type differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs), three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed filter enjoys the features of high input impedance and low active and passive sensitivities. PSPICE simulation results are given to confirm the validity of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: active filter, high input impedance, analogue

Pages: 295 - 299 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9692

59. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE MULTILEVEL AC/DC CONVERTERS

Authors: PALLAVI AHUJA , PRAMOD AGARWAL

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study of single phase multilevel AC/DC converters. The simulation results are analyzed for different topologies with variations in load current and input power supply keeping the reference output voltage constant. In all the topologies only pulse width modulation (PWM) control scheme is used with hysteresis current controller. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB SIMULINK for fundamental frequency of 50 Hz for resistive loads only. Performance analysis shows that structure of these topologies have wide use in industrial applications as they have nearly unity power factor.

Keywords: Pulse width modulation (PWM), improved power

Pages: 300 - 304 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9697

60. AN OPTIMAL (N,N) SECRET IMAGE SHARING SCHEME

Authors: BHASKAR MONDAL , DEEP SINHA , NAVIN KUMAR GUPTA , NISHANT KUMAR , PANKAJ GOYAL

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel (n,n) secret image sharing scheme. Both the construction and revealing of shares are based on matrix addition. In this paper, we have analyzed the secret image sharing scheme proposed by Dong and Ku [8] and improved it. The method [8] was applicable only for square images. The shares generated for a complete black image were themselves completely black; they were not random which made it a (1, n) secret sharing scheme. In case of images having completely single color other than the color black, the shares were having strip patterns rather than being random. Our proposed scheme is applicable for any size of image, has no pixel expansion and can reconstruct the secret image precisely. Our scheme includes no matrix multiplication for construction of shares, rather works on simple matrix addition which reduces the computational complexity. The scheme can be directly applied for any of the binary, grayscale or color image. Experimental results show that our

Keywords: Optimal Secret Sharing, Image sharing, Matrix

Pages: 305 - 309 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9699

61. A ZIGBEE BASED WIRELESS RECONFIGURABLE STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER USING FPGA

Authors: R.H.KHADE , SHEKHAR MANE

Abstract: This paper proposes a wireless stepper motor controller designed using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and is implemented on DE0 Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The proposed controller uses the Pulse- Width Modulation (PWM) technique to rotate the motor through the desired angle, speed and direction. Using the proposed controller it is possible to rotate the stepper motor precisely. In addition, the motor has been operated with a speed ranging from 5.625° per second to 20° per second in either clockwise or anticlockwise direction. Features such as manual rotation, to rotate the motor in directional mode, to pause the rotation, to execute the rotation with varying speed at desired region, return-to-zero, and zero position detection have been incorporated in the design. This proposed controller has been designed to operate wirelessly using Zigbee transreceiver module. More over the complete controller can be redesigned and realized in

Keywords: Stepper Motor, Motion Control, Wireless reconfigurable

Pages: 310 - 314 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9706

62. BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF RFID SYSTEM WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAND PARTICLES

Authors: SHILPA CHOUDHARY

Abstract: Today RFID is one of the most advanced Auto-ID Systems available. RFID is one of the most radically emerging technologies. With the recent technological progression at all levels, it is finding its application in various areas and holds a very bright future. RFID definitely still has to evolve into better and robust product but its applications and usage are endless, it gives a window to whole new world of opportunity. In this paper we will discuss about the detectability of RFID system under the tropic conditions of arid and semi arid regions i.e. effect of different type of sands, their grain size and sand layer thickness on RFID tag detectability.

Keywords: Detectability , RFID, Tag , Reader.

Pages: 315 - 318 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9728

63. BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF RFID SYSTEM WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAND PARTICLES

Authors: SHILPA CHOUDHARY

Abstract: Today RFID is one of the most advanced Auto-ID Systems available. RFID is one of the most radically emerging technologies. With the recent technological progression at all levels, it is finding its application in various areas and holds a very bright future. RFID definitely still has to evolve into better and robust product but its applications and usage are endless, it gives a window to whole new world of opportunity. In this paper we will discuss about the detectability of RFID system under the tropic conditions of arid and semi arid regions i.e. effect of different type of sands, their grain size and sand layer thickness on RFID tag detectability.

Keywords: Detectability , RFID, Tag , Reader.

Pages: 315 - 318 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9728

64. A TEST STRUCTURE FOR IN-SITU DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL STRESS

Authors: AKSHDEEP SHARMA , DEEPAK BANSAL

Abstract: This work presents a lancet type residual stress measurement test structure which comprises of a pair of bent beams along with cantilevers as driving bars for the rotational pointer structure. The residual stress causes the bent beams to deflect each other, thereby magnifying the pointer deflection. The pointer deflection direction indicates the type of stress (compressive or tensile), with the displacement being independent of Young`s modulus and film thickness. Finite element modeling also used to analyze the structure and is compared with experimental results of electroplated Au structures.

Keywords: MEMS, residual sess, test structure, FEM analysis

Pages: 319 - 322 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9733

65. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GSM BASED MOBILE COMMUNICATION UNDER RADIO PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT

Authors: POOJA PRAJESH , R.K.SINGH

Abstract: In cellular system, the knowledge of environment characterstics is useful for predicting the path loss. The path loss models which are generally used for achieving the signal attenuation or path loss. This paper deals with comparative parametric analysis of different types of path loss model in macro cell with real time measurement obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), a GSM based wireless network in Bhuj, Gujarat(India) has been implemented.

Keywords: Path Loss, Propagation Model, Lee model, Okumura

Pages: 332 - 336 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9740

66. END-TO-END QUALITY OF SERVICE IN NEXT GENERATION NETWORKS

Authors: LAV GUPTA

Abstract: Unlike traditional disparate legacy networks, Next Generation Networks (NGN) offer functional separation of services from the underlying transport enabling convergence in many forms. This paper discusses the requirement of QoS and QoE in Next Generation Networks (NGN), as defined by various international standards organizations, in order to set up the background for discussing the requirements in the Indian context.

Keywords: Convergence, NGN, QoS, end-to-end, QoE,

Pages: 327 - 331 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9743

67. OPTIMIZE RANK OF SEARCH ENGINE QUERY RESULTS USING LOG MINING

Authors: KAJAL Y. VYAS , KIRAN R. AMIN

Abstract: Search engine transaction logs have been investigated through large number of studies. Here mining of search engine query log is done. By mining user`s feedback, ranks of search engine result pages are optimized, so that related pages come earlier in the list. In this way user can easily and quickly find desired pages. Here web mining techniques are used to order the documents. This method first mines query logs using a novel similarity function to perform query clustering of similar queries. Then it discovers sequential pattern of clicked URLs in each cluster using existing Sequential Pattern mining algorithm PLWAP. In the end, search result list is re-ranked by updating existing rank values of pages using discovered sequential patterns. By this method, user desired relevant pages move upwards in result list and reduce search space for users.

Keywords: algorithm, Sequential pattern mining, Clustering.

Pages: 332 - 336 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9749

68. HYBRID APPROACH FOR CLASSIFICATION USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND DECISION TREE

Authors: ANSHU BHARADWAJ , SONAJHARIA MINZ

Abstract: A hybrid system or hybrid intelligent system uses the approach of integrating different learning or decision-making models. Each learning model works in a different manner and exploits different set of features. Integrating different learning models gives better performance than the individual learning or decision-making models by reducing their individual limitations and exploiting their different mechanisms. In this paper, a hybrid approach of classification is proposed which attempts to utilize the advantages of both decision trees and SVM leading to better classification accuracy.

Keywords: hybrid, support vector machine, decision tree, ID3,

Pages: 337 - 341 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9753

69. NEW AAA KERBEROS MODEL FOR HETROGENEOUS SYSTEMS

Authors: ADITYA HARBOLA , DEEPTI NEGI , DIBYAHASH BORDOLOI , MANJU VERMA , UMESH TIWARI

Abstract: Distributed systems could be more secured with a distributed trust model based on Kerberos. The limitation of existing kerberos protocol is that it can only be used as an authentication service. However for many distributed services the authenticated subscribers must be verified for access authorization and for cost recovery, billing and resource planning purpose. Traditional Kerberos authentication schemes do not meet distributed system requirements of authorization, failsafe operation, accounting of service usage and resilience to loss of connectivity. This paper presents a new AAA Kerberos model for heterogeneous systems which can meet the requirements of authentication, authorization and accounting.

Keywords: AAA protocol, heterogeneous systems

Pages: 342 - 346 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9757

70. A FRAMEWORK FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF INTERNET ASSISTIVE TOOLS FOR BLIND USERS

Authors: PRABHAT VERMA , RAGHURAJ SINGH

Abstract: There exist several accessibility evaluation tools for websites. However, no formal framework is available to evaluate the performance of assistive tools that are used by blind users to use internet. In this paper, we present a hierarchical model for quantitative evaluation of assistive tools for blinds. Identifying various performance attributes and Design metrics, we establish relationship among these to obtain the overall performance Index of the assistive tools. It is hoped that researchers and the others concerned shall find the work relevant for further discussion and formalization in this direction.

Keywords: attributes, Speech based Browsers, Accessibility, Usability,

Pages: 347 - 354 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9766

71. SIMULATION AND MODELING OF HANDWRITTEN MEITEI MAYEK DIGITS USING NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH

Authors: A.SURESH SINGH , ANGOM UMAKANTA SINGH , H.JAMES , N.CHANDRAKUMAR SINGH , ROMESH LAISHRAM

Abstract: Handwriting recognition is one of the most challenging research areas during last few decades. It is often useful to have machine perform pattern recognition, than the human beings. Many research works has been carried out in handwritten recognition of different Indian languages. This paper describes simulation and modeling of handwritten Meitei Mayek (Manipuri script) digit recognition (HMMDR) using a neural network approach. We have collected 1000 samples of handwritten Meitei Mayek digits from various persons. Various pre-processing steps are applied on collected sample images before passing it to the neural network. Then the Neural Network has been trained and tested on these samples.

Keywords: Networks, back propagation training.

Pages: 355 - 358 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9769

72. AN IMPROVED SPEAKER RECOGNITION BY HMM

Authors: AMRUTA ANANTRAO MALODE , SHASHIKANT L. SAHARE

Abstract: The domain area of this topic is Bio-metric. Speaker Recognition is biometric system. This paper deals with speaker recognition by HMM (Hidden Markov Model) method. The recorded speech signal contains background noise. This noise badly affects the accuracy of speaker recognition. Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT) greatly reduces the noise present in input speech signal. DWT often outperforms as compared to Fourier Transform, due to its capability to represent the signal precisely, in both frequency & time domain. Wavelet thresholding is applied to separate the speech and noise, enhancing the speech consequently. The system is able to recognize the speaker by translating the speech waveform into a set of feature vectors using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) technique. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) provides a highly reliable way for recognizing a speaker. Hidden Markov Models have been widely used, which are usually considered as a set of states with Markovian properties and obser

Keywords: Markov Model (HMM), Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients

Pages: 359 - 365 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9771

73. A DA SERIAL MULTIPLIER TECHNIQUE BASED ON 32-TAP FIR FILTER FOR AUDIO APPLICATION

Authors: ASHISH RAMAN , DINESH CHAND GUPTA , K BALRAJ

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a high speed 32-tap finite impulse response (FIR) filter that employs the Distributive Arithmetic (DA) technique for the complex computation of Audio Coefficients and Multipliers. Distributive Arithmetic (DA) has been used to implement a bit-serial scheme of a general symmetric version of FIR filter due to its high stability and linearity by taking optimal advantage of the look-up table (LUT), base structure of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Distributive Arithmetic algorithm (DA-FIR) technique is employed for reducing the complex computations, thereby increasing the speed and it also reduces the area and power consumption. The design is modeled using Verilog HDL and implemented on Virtex II Pro FPGA that consumes 39% resources of FPGA and shows the clock latency of 34 cycles at 192.45 MHz clock frequency.

Keywords: FIR filter, MATLAB, Distributive Arithmetic (DA),

Pages: 366 - 370 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9778

74. ENERGY COMPETENT BUILDING AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM — STUDY ON ARCHITECTURE DISPARITY

Authors: DHANESH TANEJA

Abstract: The presented paper describes the concepts of Energy Competent Building Automation and Control (ECBAC) using the concepts of Intelligent Energy Management Network (IEMN) for Building Automation Control (BAC) and sensor network. The proposed work is characterized by its energy efficiency, which is able to control the use of various electrical appliances and minimize the use of overall energy consumption. Considering the environmental constraints, sensor provides a path for ECBAC by helping an appliance understand the desire of a user and hence provide an appropriate BAC. Zigbee Technology has also been pioneer which works under IEEE 802.15.4. It is more compatible, efficient and much reliable than other technologies leading to less consumption of energy when used for real world applications.

Keywords: competent, sensor, efficiency, power

Pages: 371 - 374 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9784

75. HI TECH DEVICES FACILITATING AUDITORY TRAINING & SPEECH LANGUAGE THERAPY FOR CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

Authors: AMINA ASIF SIDDIQUI , BISMAH SALMAN DADABHOY

Abstract: The application of Information Technology is warranted in all aspects of life. This paper highlights the facilitation of speech and language acquisition and development in children having congenital bilateral profound sensorineural hearing impairment. A group of more than 150 bilingual children, aged 2-8 years benefitted from augmentative use of computer-based speech and language therapeutic techniques targeted towards development of linguistic abilities and literacy skills with input of information through the natural channels of hearing and vision. This led to their successful integration in mainstream society. The myriad of benefits allow us to conclude that Information Technology is an essential need of the day to inculcate both knowledge of the world, and skills to cope with challenges that individuals with hearing impairment face in today's times. Hence, both teachers and students must employ computer literacy from the early school years.

Keywords: language acquisition, mainstream education, hearing

Pages: 375 - 391 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9790

76. REPLICATION STRATEGY USING HUFFMAN TREE LIKE STRUCTURE

Authors: ADARSH PANDEY , CHIRANJEEV KUMAR , PREM NATH , RAJESH KUMAR YADAV

Abstract: Replication strategy is mostly useful for replicating the mobile user's profile at selected locations where some callers have higher calling rate. It plays important role in personal communication services (PCS) in order to reduce call setup time and increase the QoS. We have proposed a novel and innovative replication tree which is based on the Huffman tree and there is interrelationship between the replicated sites based on their effective replication probability. In the proposed scheme, the total network traffic statistic data of a mobile user is considered to define effective replication probability.

Keywords: User’s Profile Replication, Effective Replication Probability

Pages: 392 - 396 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9796

77. MRI BRAIN EDGE DETECTION USING GAFCM SEGMENTATION AND CANNY ALGORITHM

Authors: ROMESH LAISHRAM , N.AJIT KUMAR , ROBINDRO.K , S.JIMRIFF , W.KANAN KUMAR SINGH

Abstract: Over the past few decades we have seen tremendous growth in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Brain image processing. It requires various steps to ensure that the desired result is obtained. One of the constituent processes for the basic study of the brain parts is the edge detection, which is the initial module for all other post processing procedures. These edges characterize the abnormalities existing in the human brain. Hence it should be done with utmost care for obtaining worthy result. In this paper, a new approach to MRI brain edge detection problem is presented. It consists of two stages. First the original MRI image is passed through image segmentation block and in the second stage edge detection algorithm is applied to the segmented image. Image segmentation is done using Genetic algorithm incorporating Fuzzy C means clustering (GAFCM) and Canny edge detection Algorithm is used for edge detection. Although this approach has high computational complexity it greatl

Keywords: Edge ,MRI,GAFCM,Canny,segmentation.

Pages: 397 - 400 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9803

78. RRECURSIVE WIDEBAND MINIMUM PHASE DIGITAL INTEGRATORS

Authors: R.K.SINGH , DHARMENDRA K. UPADHYAY

Abstract: New designs of recursive wideband digital integrators are obtained by applying the zero-reflection approach over the existing recursive wideband digital integrators. The designed recursive digital integrators have all the poles and zeros inside the unit circle. These minimum phase integrator designs have highly improved linearity in phase responses as compared to the existing integrator designs. Therefore, the designed minimum phase recursive wideband digital integrators are more suitable for real-time control and signal processing applications.

Keywords: digital integrator, linear phase, minimum phase,

Pages: 401 - 404 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9805

79. IMAGE SECURITY ACHIEVED THROUGH WATERMARKING- SURVEY BASED ON SPATIAL AND TRANSFORM DOMAIN TECHNIQUES

Authors: ASHISH BANSAL , CHITRALEKHA DWIVEDI

Abstract: Human beings experience a non avoidable situation of sharing and posting their pictures, documents, videos etc on the internet almost every week. Intruders are often the ones who do not want to work hard and they claim on somebody's original work. Digital Watermarking has been an extraordinary rescue to the humiliating plight. There are broadly two most popular ways of embedding the watermark in the digital content ie spatial domain and transform domain. We present here the survey on both the kinds of methodologies in practice worldwide for authenticating images , in recent years.

Keywords: Watermarking , Transform Domain, Spatial,

Pages: 405 - 409 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9812

80. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FUSED NEURO-FUZZY SYSTEMS

Authors: MD. RASHID ANSARI , RASHMI KUMARI , S. K. AGGARWAL

Abstract: Fusion of ANN and Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) are frequently applied by researchers in various scientific and engineering research areas to solve real world problems. This type of system is characterized by a fuzzy system where fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules are adjusted using input output pattern pair. There are several methods of integration of these two powerful computing techniques that is basically application dependent. This paper describes the structural differences of several popular combinations of ANN and FIS along with its advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: Fuzzy inferencing system, Concurrent model, Cooperative model, Neuro-Fuzzy architectures.

Pages: 410 - 414 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9818

81. RELIABLE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PLANNING

Authors: D.S.CHAUHAN , A. CHANDEL , D. SINGH

Abstract: In order to completely utilize the advantages of dispersed generation it holds compulsively to reform management and to revalidate the operations of distribution network. It hence follows picking up the optimal network topology and blending it with the optimal use of dispersed generation and retail market including real and reactive power. Also, minimization of related costs and satisfying technical and physical constraints is also the key issue to concentrate. This paper presents a methodology of filling the demand supply difference by load sharing by distributed generators integrated in the 24 bus IEEE RTS. The load is distributed so as to minimize the system losses. The saving in the cost of energy is also calculated to reduce the burden at consumer end.

Keywords: System, Composite customer demand function (CCDF).

Pages: 415 - 418 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9822

82. IMPLEMENTING SMART WHITE LED LIGHTNING SYSTEM IN BUILDINGS USING 32-BIT MICROCONTROLLER

Authors: PRITHIPAL SINGH , RAMANDEEP SINGH , SIDDHARTH LALIT

Abstract: Increasing user's comfort and reducing the wastage of our electricity power is the major objective of this paper. Current designs used in building are not successful in incorporating the occupant comfort for the user and use of the power efficiently at the same time. In this paper, we present a novel utility-based building control system that optimizes the trade-offs between meeting the user comfort and reduction in the cost of operation by reducing the excess usage of energy. We present an implementation of the proposed approach as an intelligent interior lighting control system that significantly reduces the energy cost. Today in our lighting system for institutes and offices either incandescent lamps or fluorescent tubes are being used. The luminous efficiency of fluorescent tube is 67 (lux) while that of an incandescent lamp is just 22 (lux). So LED panels are a very efficient alternative for them which have a luminous efficiency as high as 100 (lux). Although LED panels have initi

Keywords: LPC2148 (ARM 7) microcontroller

Pages: 419 - 424 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9827

83. GENERATION OF IMAGE ENCRYPTION KEY ON THE BASIS OF CHAOS AND STRANGE ATTRACTORS

Authors: DEVENDER JHA , SAURABH PRATAP SINGH , SUNIL KR. SINGH

Abstract: In the paper, a chaotic key-based algorithm (CKBA) for image encryption methodology is proposed, which is a value substitution cipher. This paper estimates its security and points out that known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks can break it with only one known plain-image making it highly secure and brute force attacks cannot break it. In addition, its security to brute-force attack is very high due to the stochastic behavior occurring in a deterministic system. So this key is secure atall from the strongly cryptographic viewpoints. Lorentz attractors are heavily dependent on initial condition and have the lowest level of predictability lead to use fullness in the encryption of any form of information either image or text.Encryption based on Lorenz strange attractor has been studied and applied.

Keywords: chaotic systems, stochastic, cryptography, stream

Pages: 425 - 428 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9836

84. SPEECH ENHANCEMENT USING SPECTRAL SUBTRACTION, AFFINE PROJECTION ALGORITHMS AND CLASSICAL ADAPTIVE FILTERS

Authors: RAVI BOLIMERA , SIVA PRASAD NANDYALA , T. KISHORE KUMAR

Abstract: In this paper, we analysed the performance analysis for speech enhancement using spectral subtraction, affine projection algorithms and classical adaptive filters. As the enhancement of speech signals is of very important in many applications like speech recognition, hearing aids, forensic applications and telephone conversations etc. The performance of the speech recognition also reduces if the speech signal is corrupted by noise. To remove the noise present in the speech signal, the adaptive filters shown the good improvement in increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) values. The matlab simulations are performed using NOIZEUS speech corpus for different SNR values using Spectral Subtraction(SS), Least Mean Square (LMS), Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS), Recursive Least Squares (RLS), Affine Projection Algorithms (APA). From the results it is observed that RLS algorithm has shown good improvement in speech enhancement when compared to the other methods.

Keywords: NLMS, Affine Projection, RLS,Speech Enhancement

Pages: 429 - 434 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9838

85. APPLIANCE OF NEURAL NETWORKS IN IDS

Authors: ABHAY CHATURVEDI , VINEET SRIVASTAVA

Abstract: With the growing reliance on the internet and other networks the security of these networks has become a major issue as almost all private and government concerns are dependent on the web. Malicious hackers pose serious threats to our networks which lead to the researches in the field of Intrusion detection. In our work we are concerned about attacks that can't be detected by the traditional approaches as intrusions are getting intelligent day by day, so we should be equipped with a more intelligent detection system. For this we are using the soft computing techniques such as artificial neural networks and Multilayer Perceptron as an approach in ANN. Different structures of MLPs are used for the classification of patterns for intrusion detection.

Keywords: IDS, MDM, ADM, Neural Network, MLP

Pages: 435 - 438 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9841

86. ENERGY CONSERVATION USING LOCATION AIDED ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MANET

Authors: CHANDRESH G. GHODASARA , RADHIKA D. JOSHI

Abstract: In a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), mobile nodes move around arbitrarily, nodes may join and leave the network at any time, and the resulting topology is constantly changing. Routing in a MANET is challenging issue because of the dynamic topology and the lack of fixed infrastructure. Since each mobile node has a limited battery lifetime, energy conservation is essential to prolong network lifetime in MANET. Hence, it is required to invent a new routing algorithm which makes efficient use of battery. The main objective of our paper is to optimize energy consumption in Location Aided Routing (LAR1). LAR1 is selected for enhancement because of higher packet delivery ratio, moderate energy consumption and best suited for mobile and dense network. Proposed protocol named as Energy Aware Location Aided Routing (EALAR1) senses remaining lifetime of node during route discovery and selects the path with maximum lifetime. Node remaining lifetime is the function of residual energy and drain rate

Keywords: MANET, Routing, LAR1, GPS.

Pages: 439 - 446 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9848

87. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MANET FOR RELIABLE PACKET DELIVERY

Authors: CHIRAG RAKHOLIYA , RADHIKA D. JOSHI

Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructure less network in which nodes are mobile, self reconfigurable, limited battery powered. The key challenge of ad hoc networks is the design of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently establish a route between pair of nodes. As nodes in MANET are limited battery powered, they may get totally discharged during active communication, causing packet drops resulting in low packet delivery ratio. The aim of this paper is to reduce the packet drops due to node failures thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Our modified protocol named Improved Zone Routing Protocol (IZRP) makes use of energy factor, which is a function of residual energy of the node and it selects the nodes with good battery lifetime to establish a path between source and destination. The goal of this work is to find a solution to address the link failure challenges in improving the reliability of packet-delivery services in MANETs. To analyze relative performance of modif

Keywords: MANET, protocols, ZRP, routing zone.

Pages: 447 - 452 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9866

88. CLOUD COMPUTING : AN INDUSTRIAL VIEW

Authors: ALKA ARORA , MADHAVI DHINGRA

Abstract: Is cloud computing the savior of business? Is it a threat to data security? Does it signal the demise of the corporate IT function entirely? These are some of the questions in the current scenario. Cloud computing is a young phenomenon, and it is suffering through the growing pains typical of its age. Although the upside of cloud computing is considerable, numerous challenges lie ahead. This paper discuss about all the benefits of cloud computing, along with the challenges faced by the industries and software companies. It also presents solutions to some of the major challenges of cloud computing according to their needs.

Keywords: Reduced, costs, Cloud, computing

Pages: 453 - 457 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9873

89. PARAMETER EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF PENTACENE THIN FILM TRANSISTOR WITH DIFFERENT INSULATORS

Authors: ANURADHA YADAV , NISHANT TRIPATHI , POORNIMA MITTAL , Y. S. NEGI

Abstract: This paper presents both analytical modeling and simulations based on finite element method of Pentacene Thin Film Transistors or Organic Thin Film transistors (PTFTs/OTFTs). Analytical modeling approach is introduced by using conventional transistor equations and finite element method using ATLAS two dimensional numerical device simulators. Both the methods shows a good agreement of output characteristic and parameters with experimental results. Further simulation is performed for top contact OTFT devices with different insulator materials while pentacene is used as organic semiconductor (OSC) material. A large variation has been observed for different insulators which insight the importance for right selection of the material during fabrication. It has been observed that the best results can be obtained for Hafnium oxide (HfO2) due to highest dielectric constant. Parameters such as current on-off ratio drain current and transconductance shows a variation of 85% or more for different

Keywords: transistors (OTFTs), Top contact OTFTs.

Pages: 458 - 462 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9874

90. AN EFFICIENT AND IMPROVED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPROACH TO SOLVE ECONOMIC DISPATCH WITH LINEFLOW CONSTRAINTS

Authors: K.NISHA , R.P.KUMUDHNI DEVI

Abstract: In this paper an efficient method of ordinary genetic algorithm (OGA) has been proposed to solve economic dispatch (ED) problem with line flow constraints. The proposed method uses the situation where if more number of candidates participate in a competition, the chance of getting a good candidate is better. The set of population directed by evolutionary direction operator, gets directed towards the global optimal solution. The proposed technique is called efficient and improved genetic algorithm (EIGA) and has been tested on IEEE 30 bus system. The new technique is compared with OGA and improved genetic algorithm (IGA). Numerical results imply that the quality of the solution is better and time consumed (in terms of computer cycles ) to get the result is less using the new method as compared with the other two methods.

Keywords: optimization, ED, evolutionary direction.

Pages: 463 - 467 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9877

91. EFFICIENT TRANSPORTING ETHERNET TRAFFIC THROUGH SONET/SDH NETWORKS

Authors: BHUPESH BHATIA , SANJAY KUMAR , SUSHIL KUMAR

Abstract: The communication landscape is denoted by two differing technologies: Ethernet in LAN and SONET/SDH in WAN. To interface the LAN to WAN, as Ethernet is not directly supported over the SONET/SDH network. And also due to transporting rate mismatch make carrying Ethernet connection over a SONET pipe bandwidth inefficient. For Efficient transporting Ethernet traffic through SONET/SDH networks new technologies have been standardized, VC and GPF, which are features of next generation SONET/SDH.This paper presents the study of virtual concatenations, Generic Framing Procedure and implementation of SONET/SDH line card. A key attribute of these designs is the support for the VC and LCAS standards.

Keywords: SONET, SDH, ROI, VC, GPF, LCAS

Pages: 508 - 511 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9916

92. CCCDBA BASED VOLTAGE MODE TOW — THOMAS BIQUADRATIC FILTERS

Authors: D.S.CHAUHAN , R.K.SINGH , SAURABH MISHRA , VISHAL BHATIA

Abstract: This article presents a voltage-mode universal bi-quadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based-on Current Controlled Current Differencing Buffered Amplifiers (CCCDBAs) TOW-THOMAS mode equivalent. The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned orthogonally via the input bias currents: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of merely few CCCDBAs and grounded capacitors. Without any external resistors and using only grounded elements, the proposed circuit is very comfortable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: (CCCDBA), High pass filter, Low pass filter, Notch

Pages: 517 - 521 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9944

93. AN ONLINE MANAGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING RESOURCE FOR AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA

Authors: ALKAARORA , PANNALAL GUPTA, , R.C.GOYAL , RAJNIBALA GROVER , SHASHIDAHIYA , SOUMEN PAL

Abstract: The size and the complexity of the educational system continue to expand as the population and economy grows. Educational planners and administrators have been witnessing a steady growth in the amount and variety of information that has been collected and made available to them. With this growing pressure of information revolution and knowledge explosion, the informational requirements of educational planning and management are tremendous. There are various decision-makers, like employers, planners and administrators, who are continuously engaged in the process of educational planning and management. It is important for each one of them to have reliable and relevant information they require for decision-making in education. This paper presents a solution to this problem with the development and deployment of a National Information System on Agricultural Education Network in India (NISAGENET) using the .NET technology.NISAGENET is a unified system for collection, compilation and analysi

Keywords: ICAR, Agricultural Education, MIS, Nodal Officers

Pages: 512 - 516 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9926

94. INTEGRATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES

Authors: BHUPESH SINGH

Abstract: One of the problem world is facing today is the energy crisis. Fossil fuels are being consumed at an alarming rate; there is an immediate need to switch to non-conventional sources of energy, namely solar and wind power. An integrated model is presented in this paper comprising of solar and wind-power The new model was tested and results are presented here using matlab simulink.

Keywords: Integration, Energy Resources

Pages: 522 - 526 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9947

95. ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGY MAPPING ALGORITHM FOR LOGIC OPTIMIZATION OF SYMMETRICAL FPGA ARCHITECTURE THROUGH HYBRID LUTS/PLAS

Authors: SUNIL KR. SINGH , M. P. S. BHATIA

Abstract: Reconfigurable computing using Field Programmable Devices (FPD) provides a method to utilize the available logic resources on the chip for various computations. The basic ability of reconfigurable computing is to perform computations in hardware to increase performance, while retaining the flexibility of application software. The purpose of this paper is to analysis the effect of technology mapping algorithms on logic density of FPGA devices for reconfigurable computing system using Hybrids of Look up tables (LUTs) from FPGA and Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) from CPLD architectures. LUTs/PLAs are both contributing particular strengths in the area of reconfigurable system design. We identified Hybrid LUTs/PLAs architectures as Hybrid Reconfigurable Computing Architectures (HRCA). The basis of the HRCA is that some parts of digital circuits are well-suited for execution with LUTs, but other for PLAs structures. The technology mapping step converts the user define gate level network in

Keywords: Technology, Leagal System, mapping

Pages: 527 - 531 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9952

96. DESIGN OF A HIGH SLEW RATE MODERATE SPEED CMOS OPAMP

Authors: ABHISHEK SARMA , RATUL KUMAR BARUAH

Abstract: In this work, a high slew rate CMOS operational amplifier (op-amp) having moderate speed is presented which operates at supply voltage of 1.8 V (rail to rail) using TSMC 0.18 mm CMOS technology. Current buffer compensation strategy in conjunction with Miller compensation is used to achieve high speed and high slew rate. In this design, a tradeoff between speed and power dissipation is maintained. The op-amp is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 1.1 GHz and gives a gain of 60 dB with a 57.50° phase margin. The proposed design exhibits a higher unity gain bandwidth and slew rate as compared to other conventional methods at the same load [1], [2]. This opamp is designed for high speed applications where a higher slew rate is required.

Keywords: Operational amplifier, slew rate

Pages: 532 - 535 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9955

97. SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Authors: RUSHITA GUPTA , RAGHAV GARG, , SAHIB SARTAJ SINGH

Abstract: Effective management of water resources is of key concern in cropping systems in semiarid and arid areas. Distributed sensor-based irrigation systems provide an efficient solution to support site-specific irrigation that allows farmers to maximize their crop growth along with saving water. This paper describes details of the design and instrumentation of a smart automated irrigation, that supports a wireless sensor network, a memory storage for storing the details of the crop and the soil type, and software for real-time sensing and control of a site-specific precision move irrigation system. Field conditions were site-specifically monitored by field sensor maintained in the smart irrigation device based on a soil property map, and periodically sampled and wirelessly transmitted to a base station. An embedded systems based, irrigation machine was converted to be electronically controlled by a programming logic controller that gets updates from a remote Global Positioning System (GPS) a

Keywords: SMART, IRRIGATION SYSTEM,WIRELESS

Pages: 536 - 538 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9959

98. A METRIC EXTENT FOR COMPONENT BASED SOFTWARE PRODUCTS

Authors: B K SINHA

Abstract: The overriding goal of software engineering is to provide a high quality system, application or a product. To achieve this goal, software engineers must apply effective methods coupled with modern tools within the context of a mature software process [2]. In addition, it is also must to assure that high quality is realized. Although many quality measures can be collected at the project levels, the important measures are errors and defects. Deriving a quality measure for reusable components has proven to be challenging task now a days. The results obtained from the study are based on the empirical evidence of reuse practices, as emerged from the analysis of industrial projects. Both large and small companies, working in a variety of business domains, and using object-oriented and procedural development approaches contributed towards this study. This paper proposes a quality metric that provides benefit at both project and process level, namely defect removal efficiency (DRE).

Keywords: Software Reuse, Defect density, Reuse metrics

Pages: 542 - 544 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9967

99. MOBILE PAYMENT IN MOBILE E-COMMERCE

Authors: RAGHAV GARG, , RISHI SHARMA , NIKITA PASHINE

Abstract: The main problem of Indian e-commerce is its insufficient modes of payment. Therefore the development in resources of mobile payment is necessary to boost the e-commerce business in India. There are presently three forms of payment prevalent in India in e-commerce One is the payment through credit cards/debit cards, second is the cash on delivery option which is only available in selected cities. Last but not the least is the mobile banking payment which has recently developed. But it is available only through banks which provide mobile banking. The paper brings forward a new form of payment through mobile phone. Referring to the advantages of the existing forms of payments and aiming to cover up their disadvantages at the same time. We propose an idea for an e-commerce website and mobile service provider to eliminate the role of banks from mobile payment. An e-commerce pin will be available for the people buying sim cards and can further purchase via sending sms from their mobile phon

Keywords: mobile payment platform

Pages: 539 - 541 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9963

100. A METRIC EXTENT FOR COMPONENT BASED SOFTWARE PRODUCTS

Authors: B K SINHA

Abstract: The overriding goal of software engineering is to provide a high quality system, application or a product. To achieve this goal, software engineers must apply effective methods coupled with modern tools within the context of a mature software process [2]. In addition, it is also must to assure that high quality is realized. Although many quality measures can be collected at the project levels, the important measures are errors and defects. Deriving a quality measure for reusable components has proven to be challenging task now a days. The results obtained from the study are based on the empirical evidence of reuse practices, as emerged from the analysis of industrial projects. Both large and small companies, working in a variety of business domains, and using object-oriented and procedural development approaches contributed towards this study. This paper proposes a quality metric that provides benefit at both project and process level, namely defect removal efficiency (DRE).

Keywords: Defect Removal efficiency

Pages: 542 - 544 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9967

101. STEPPING TOWARDS THE SEMANTIC WEB

Authors: RAKESH KUMAR , JATINDER KUMAR , NAVJOT KAUR , RAJWINDER KAUR , RITU BALA

Abstract: The Semantic Web aims at machine agents that thrive on explicitly specified semantics of content in order to search, filter, condense, or negotiate knowledge for their human users. A core technology for making the Semantic Web happen, but also to leverage application areas like Knowledge Management and E-Business, is the field of Semantic Annotation, which turns human-understandable content into a machine understandable form.The generation of information on the web is increasing exponentially. The main need of web users is to access subject relevant and well-defined meaningful information. Semantic Web will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages, creating an environment where software agents roaming from page to page can readily carry out sophisticated tasks for users. This study is, after analyze of Semantic Web Application and Web ontology characteristics, established inference-based web ontology that use expression of Description Logic and verified inference that est

Keywords: Semantic web, RDF, Ontology

Pages: 545 - 549 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9982

102. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT AND COMPARISION WITH IAAS MODEL USING CLOUDANALYST

Authors: G.P. SAROHA , PRADEEP SINGH RAWAT

Abstract: Cloud computing is an advance technology which provides its resources, application and system software as a service to the end user following the pay as you go model. It can provide fly based quality of service using its infrastructure as a service. It is very difficult to the researcher and industry user to identify the performance of Internet based application using real cloud platform. So we use the tool to identify the performance of application so that we can easily deploy it on real cloud with minimum cost. We know that in cloud based application cost is associated with two parameter virtual machine and data transfer corresponding to the user base. Simulation tool is based on cloudsim preexisting tool kit which is the preference of every researcher to test the performance of cloud configuration. Data center is the main resource of the cloud which holds the computing and storage server with number of host machine. To run the applications on cloud we follow hear the task model i.e.

Keywords: center, Simulation, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS;

Pages: 550 - 554 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9995

103. FAULT MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTER NETWORKS BASED ON PROBE STATION AND PROBE SET SELECTION ALGORITHMS

Authors: BALAJI PATIL , SHAKTI KINGER , VINAY KUMAR PATHAK

Abstract: Fault diagnosis is a central aspect of network fault management. Since faults are unavoidable in communication systems, their quick detection and isolation is essential for the robustness, reliability, and accessibility of a system. In large and complex communication networks, automating fault diagnosis is critical. Traditionally, fault localization has been performed manually by experts but, as systems grew larger and more complex, automated fault localization techniques became important. Probing technique for fault localization involves placement of probe stations which affects the diagnosis capability of the probes sent by the probe stations and the overhead of instrumentation. In this paper we discussed a novel integrated approach of probe station and probe set selection for fault localization which outperforms the independent fault localization approaches.

Keywords: set, probe station selection.

Pages: 598 - 599 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-91000

104. IMPACT OF E-BUSINESS ON THE RETAIL MARKET: A SHORT STUDY

Authors: MADHAVI DHINGRA , RACHANA GHAYAL

Abstract: E-business has revolutionized the way companies do business. E-Business offers buyer and sellers a new form of communication and provides opportunities to create new marketplace.This electronic business has a major impact on the retail industry in a variety of ways. Retailers have had to adapt to new technological demands from users to allow them to participate in the e-business world. E-business has created new activities and features in which consumers and businesses can participate. This paper defines e-business importance, e-business adoption and its impact focusing on the major activities that consumers and businesses can now perform, describes the types of customers who are more likely to participate in e-business, and it also outlines the prediction of e-business future success.

Keywords: E-business, retail industry, e-shopping

Pages: 560 - 563 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-91006

105. IMPACTS ON CELLS MOBILITY OF HUMAN BEINGS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO EMF RADIATION

Authors: R.K.SINGH , RAJINDER TIWARI

Abstract: Although the important role of the immune system in defending the human body against infections and cancer, only few studies on the possible effects of radio frequency radiation on the function of human immune cells have been undertaken. The present study was performed to investigate whether radio frequency (RF) field exposure could affect the activity of human immune system cells by studying the activity and behavior of human leukocytes (white blood cells) upon exposure to radiofrequency fields. Human blood Leukocytes were exposed to different temperatures and 1800 MHz RF radiation (SAR of 1.25 W/Kg, Power density of 0.1 mW/cm2) from a mobile phone when placed within a distance of 5 cm from the microscope stage. Our results indicated that when 1800 MHz RF field was applied, the speed increased above the value observed at the same temperature, and the maximum speed exceeded that measured value at any temperature by approximately 50%. The average time for the leukocytes to respond to th

Keywords: EMF Radiation, Radio Frequency (RF), Cells

Pages: 564 - 567 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-91008

106. MOBILE PAYMENT IN MOBILE E-COMMERCE

Authors: RAGHAV GARG , NIKITA PASHINE , RISHI SHARMA

Abstract: The main problem of Indian e-commerce is its insufficient modes of payment. Therefore the development in resources of mobile payment is necessary to boost the e-commerce business in India. There are presently three forms of payment prevalent in India in e-commerce One is the payment through credit cards/debit cards, second is the cash on delivery option which is only available in selected cities. Last but not the least is the mobile banking payment which has recently developed. But it is available only through banks which provide mobile banking. The paper brings forward a new form of payment through mobile phone. Referring to the advantages of the existing forms of payments and aiming to cover up their disadvantages at the same time. We propose an idea for an e-commerce website and mobile service provider to eliminate the role of banks from mobile payment. An e-commerce pin will be available for the people buying sim cards and can further purchase via sending sms from their mobile phon

Keywords: mobile payment platform

Pages: 539 - 541 | DOI: 10.15224/978-981-07-2950-9-9963

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